Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 325–333 | Cite as

The comparison of two neolignans isolated from red betel leaf and its extract against macrophage phagocytic activity, the level of AST, and histopathological features of the liver in mice

  • Yustina Sri HartiniEmail author
  • Sitarina Widyarini
  • Laurentius Hartanto Nugroho
Research Article


A single active compound isolated from a plant extract may show a lower, equal, or greater activity compared to its extract. The two neolignans (Pc-1 and Pc-2) has been isolated from red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.) leaf. The aim of this study was to compare the phagocytic activity of macrophage and histopathological feature in mice treated with Pc-1, Pc-2 and its Pc-extract. Listeria monocytogenes was used to induce Balb/c mice immune response. Peroral administration of Pc-1 and Pc-2 and red betel leaf methanolic Pc-extract were carried out. The phagocytic effect was determined by macrophage phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) assays. The morphological feature of liver and kidney were observed using light microscope. The level of apartate transaminase (AST serum) and alanine transaminase (ALT serum) were also measured from the blood serum before and after L. monocytogenes infection. The results shows that the macrophage phagocytic activity of given 450 mg/kg body weight Pc-extract was equal to 5 mg/kg body weight of Pc-1 and Pc-2. The activity pattern of percentage phagocytosis, index phagocytosis, and efficiency phagocytosis of Pc-extract, Pc-1, and Pc-2 were similar, as well as the NO production. A certain dose of Pc-extract and both isolated compound reduced the level of AST while there were no effect on ALT level. There were no histopathological features differences in the liver after treated with Pc-extract and Pc-1. However, Pc-2 treatment caused hydropic degeneration on liver. Therefore it can be concluded that there were equal activity between Pc-extract and the isolated compound in certain dose. The Pc-extract and isolated compound reduced the level of AST while there were no effect on ALT. The only Pc-2 affected the histopathological features of the liver.


Red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.) Isolated compound Pc-extract Phagocytic Histopathological 



The author is grateful to Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia for the financial support by Fundamental Research Grant with Contract Number: 010/HB-LIT/III/2015.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical statement

All procedures associated with animal experimentations were approved by the central integrated research (LPPT) Universitas Gadjah Mada Indonesia number: 221/KEC-LPPT/III/2015.

Conflict of interest

This manuscript described has not been published before; not under consideration for publication anywhere else; and has been approved by all co-authors.


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Copyright information

© Institute of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PharmacySanata Dharma UniversityYogyakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Faculty of BiologyUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

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