To evaluate the efficacy of Gossypium herbaceum L. in perceived insufficient milk (PIM) supply. In this single-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, test group (n = 30), received kernel of Gossypium herbaceum, 10 g (powder filled in the capsules) orally in three divided doses for 1 month, whereas the placebo group (n = 15), received wheat flour. The primary outcome measures were reduction in volume of supplementary feeds, and weight gain of the baby. The secondary outcome measures were improvement in subjective satisfaction of the mothers regarding the well being and happiness of babies, feeling fullness in the breast, contra lateral ejection of the milk, and mother’s observation in increase of breast milk. These parameters were rated on a graded scale ranging from 1 to 5 (1 denoting unsatisfactory and 5 representing highly satisfactory). The data was analyzed by using Student’s t test, Chi-square or Fisher exact test to find the significance (P < 0.05) of the study parameters. In the test group, 21(70 %), 7(23.33 %) and 2(6.67 %) mothers had complete relactation, partial relactation and no response correspondingly, whereas in the control group 4(26.67 %) mothers had complete relactation, and 11(73.33 %) mothers had no response. The volume of supplementary feeds to the infant in the test group was significantly reduced to 40 ± 75.88 ml after treatment from the baseline of the test group (291.66 ± 70.50 ml; P < 0.001) and placebo (226.66 ± 149.84 ml; P < 0.008). The secondary outcome measures of the test group were significant statistically. This herb is efficacious, safe and cost effective in augmenting lactation in PIM supply.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Anonymous (2007) The Unani Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1, Vol.1. Dept. of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homoepathy, New Delhi, pp. 66–7
Baiter I (2005) Al Jamili Mufradat Al Adwiya wal Aghziya. Vol. 4. Shrishti Book Distributors, New Delhi, pp. 73–4
Banapurmath S, Banapurmath CR, Kesaree N (2003) Initiation of lactation and establishing relactation in outpatients. Indian J Pediatr 40:343–347
Boodoo AA, Ramjee R, Hulman B, Dolberg F, Rowe JB (1990) Effect of supplements of balanced concentrates and cottonseed cake on milk production in Mauritian villages. Livest Res Rural Dev 2(1)
Claudia B (1993) A survey of galactagogues herbs used in Europe. Médicaments Et Aliments: L’approche Ethnopharmacologique médicaments and food: The ethnopharmacological approach 24–27:140–5.
De NC, Pandit B, Mishra SK, Pappu K, Chaudhuri SN (2002) Initiating the process of relactation: an institute based study. Indian J Pediatr 39:173–178
Gaya H, Hulman B, Preston TR (1982) The value for milk production of different feed supplements: effect of cereal protein concentrate, poultry litter and oil seed meal. Trop Anim Prod 7:134–137
Ghani N (2002) Khazianul Advia. Idarae Kitabus Shifa, New Delhi, p 339
Gupta M, Shaw B (2011) A double-blind randomized clinical trial for evaluation of galactagogue activity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. Iranian J Pharm Res 10(1):167–172
Gupte S (ed) (2004) The short textbook of pediatrics. Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi, pp 113–117
Gurneesh S, Ellora D (2009) Effect of Antenatal expression of breast milk at term to improve lactational performance: a prospective study. J Obstet Gynecol India 59(4):308–311
Huggins K (1998) Fenugreek: one remedy for low milk production. Rental Roundup 15(1):16–17
Jon W (2001) The economic benefits of breastfeeding: A review and analysis. Food and rural economics division, economic research service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Food Assistance and Nutrition Research, Washington
Kapil U, Verma D, Narula S, Nayar D, Sachdev HPS, Shah AD et al (1994) Breast-feeding practices in schedule caste. Communities in Haryana. Indian J Pediatr 31:1227–1232
Kent JC, Prime DK, Garbin CP (2012) Principles for maintaining or increasing breast milk production. JOGNN 41:114–121. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01313.x
Khaleequr R, Arshiya S, Shafeequr R (2012) Gossypium Herbaceum Linn: An Ethnopharmacological review. J Pharm Sci Innov 1(5):1–5
Kumar N, Shekhar C, Kumar P, Kundu AS (2007) Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale-updating for 2007. Indian J Pediatr 74(12):1131–1132
Lewis PJ, Devenish C, Kahn C (1980) Controlled trial of Metoclopramide in the initiation of breast feeding. Br J Clin Pharmac 9:217–219
Martinet J, Houdebine LM, Head HH (1993) Biology of lactation. INRA, Paris, p 557
Mathur GP, Chitranshi S, Mathur S, Singh SB, Bhalla M (1992) Lactation failure. Indian J Pediatr 29(12):1541–1544
Mathur NB, Dhingra D (2009) Perceived breast milk insufficiency in mothers of neonates hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit. Indian J Pediatr 76(10):1003–1006, Epub 2009 Nov 12
Montgomery A, Wight N (2004) Use of Galactagogues in Initiating or Augmenting Maternal Milk Supply. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee
Osman H, El Zein L, Livia W (2009) Cultural beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women: a qualitative analysis. Int Breastfeed J 4:12. doi:10.1186/1746-4358-4-12
Segãoera-Millãn S, Dewey KG, Perez-Escamilla RJ (1994) Factors associated with perceived insufficient milk in a low-income urban population in Mexico. Nutr 124:202–212
Sepehri H, Roghani M, Houdebine ML (1998) Oral administration of pectin-rich plant extract enhances C3 and C4 complement concentration in woman colostrums. Reprod Nutr Dev 38:255–260. doi:10.1051/rnd:19980305
Sikka P, Saxena NK, Gupta R, Sethi RK, Lall D (2001) Studied on milk Allantoin and uric acid in relation to feeding regimens and production performance in Buffaloes. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 14(11):1634–1637
Taneja DK, Misra A, Mathur NB (2005) Infant feeding-an evaluation of text and taught. Indian J Pediatr 72(2):127–129
Zhou HY, Li L, Li D, Li X, Meng HJ, Gao XM et al (2009) Clincial observation on the treatment of post-cesarean hypogalactia by Auricular points sticking pressing. Clin J Integr Med 15(2):117–120
Zuppa AA, Sindico P, Orchi C, Carducci C, Cardiello V, Romagnoli C et al (2010) Safety and efficacy of Galactagogues: substances that induce, maintain and increase breast milk production. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 13(2):162–174
About this article
Cite this article
Manjula, S., Sultana, A. & Rahman, K. Clinical efficacy of Gossypium herbaceum L. seeds in perceived insufficient milk (PIM) supply: A randomized single-blind placebo-controlled study. Orient Pharm Exp Med 14, 77–85 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-013-0121-7
- Gossypium herbaceum Linn
- Perceived insufficient milk (PIM) supply
- Randomized controlled trial