Modeling sapling distribution over time using a functional predictor in a generalized additive model
- 172 Downloads
The effect of adult trees on sapling density distribution during the regeneration fellings is determined in a Pinus sylvestris L. Mediterranean forest using generalized additive models.
Spatial pattern of adult trees determines the number of new individuals after regeneration fellings, which modify the light and air temperature under tree canopy.
We proposed a novel spatiotemporal model with a functional predictor in a generalized additive model framework to describe nonlinear relationships between the size of the adult trees and the number of saplings of P. sylvestris and to determine if the spatial pattern of the number of saplings remained constant or changed in time.
In 2001, two plots (0.5 ha) were set up in two phases of regeneration fellings under the group shelterwood method. We mapped the trees and saplings and measured their diameter and height. The inventories were repeated in 2006, 2010, and 2014.
We found a negative association between the diameter of adult trees and number of saplings up to 7–8 m. Beyond these distances, the diameter of adult trees was not associated with the number of saplings. Our results indicate that the spatial pattern of the number of saplings remained quite constant in time.
The generalized additive models are a flexible tool to determine the distance range of inhibition of saplings by adult trees.
KeywordsEdge effect Intra-specific competition Mountain forest Shade tolerance Mediterranean areas
We wish to thank everybody who participated in the field work, especially Ángel Bachiller, Estrella Viscasillas, and Enrique Garriga. We appreciate the comments made by the referees and the editors of Annals of Forest Science during the revision process. We also thank Adam Collins for revising the English writing.
DMF has been funded by Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport thorough the FPU program (FPU13/02113) and by the short-term visiting program (EST15/00242). This work has been funded by AGL2013-46028-R and BOSSANOVA-CM (S2013/MAE-2760).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
- Castro J, Zamora R, Hodar JA, Gomez JM (2004) Seedling establishment of a boreal tree species (Pinus sylvestris) at its southernmost distribution limit: consequences of being in a marginal Mediterranean habitat. J Ecol 92:266–277. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00870.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Duchon J (1977) Splines minimizing rotation-invariant semi-norms in Sobolev spaces. In: Schempp W, Zeller K (eds) Constructive theory of functions of several variables: proceedings of a conference held at Oberwolfach April 25 -- May 1, 1976. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 85–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/BFb0086566 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Faraway JJ (2006) Extending the linear model with R: generalized linear, mixed effects and nonparametric regression modelsGoogle Scholar
- Houston Durrant T, de Rigo D, Caudullo G (2016) Pinus sylvestris in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz J, de Rigo D, Caudullo G et al (eds) European atlas of Forest tree species. Publication Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
- Ledo A, Cañellas I, Barbeito I, Gordo FJ, Calama RA, Gea-Izquierdo G (2014) Species coexistence in a mixed Mediterranean pine forest: spatio-temporal variability in trade-offs between facilitation and competition. For Ecol Manag 322:89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.02.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mason W, Alía R (2000) Current and future status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Europe. Investig Agrar Sist y Recur For Fuera de s:317–335Google Scholar
- Mátyás C, Ackzell L, Samuel C (2003) EUFORGEN technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)Google Scholar
- McDonald RI, Peet RK, Urban DL (2003) Spatial pattern of Quercus regeneration limitation and Acer rubrum invasion in a Piedmont forest. J Veg Sci 14:441–450. https://doi.org/10.1658/1100-9233(2003)014[0441:SPOQRL]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
- McDowell N, Pockman WT, Allen CD, Breshears DD, Cobb N, Kolb T, Plaut J, Sperry J, West A, Williams DG, Yepez EA (2008) Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New Phytol 178:719–739. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02436.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moreno-Fernández D, Díaz-Pinés E, Barbeito I, Sánchez-González M, Montes F, Rubio A, Cañellas I (2015b) Temporal carbon dynamics over the rotation period of two alternative management systems in Mediterranean mountain Scots pine forests. For Ecol Manag 348:186–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.03.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moreno-Fernández D, Sánchez-González M, Álvarez-González JG, Hevia A, Majada JP, Cañellas I, Gea-Izquierdo G (2014) Response to the interaction of thinning and pruning of pine species in Mediterranean mountains. Eur J For Res 133:833–843. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-014-0800-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rabasa SG, Granda E, Benavides R, Kunstler G, Espelta JM, Ogaya R, Peñuelas J, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Gil W, Grodzki W, Ambrozy S, Bergh J, Hódar JA, Zamora R, Valladares F (2013) Disparity in elevational shifts of European trees in response to recent climate warming. Glob Chang Biol 19:2490–2499. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12220 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computingGoogle Scholar
- Ribeiro PJ, Diggle PJ (2016) geoR: analysis of geostatistical data. www.leg.ufpr.br/geoR
- Ritchie J (1981) Soil water availability. Plant Soil 58:357–338Google Scholar
- Valladares F, Niinemets Ü (2008) Shade tolerance, a key plant feature of complex nature and consequences. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39:237–257. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173506 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wada N, Ribbens E (1997) Japanese maple (Acer palmatum var. matsumurae, Aceraceae) recuitment patterns: seeds,seedlings and salings in relation to conspecific adult neighbors. Oikos 84:1294–1300Google Scholar
- Wood SN (2006) Generalized additive models: an introduction with R. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar