Identification of market adulterants in East Indian sandalwood using DNA barcoding
- 311 Downloads
East Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) in commercial markets is highly prone to adulteration. A number of cases were registered with regard to the adulteration of East Indian sandalwood, but the lack of technical tools for the precise species identification of the source wood stalled most of the court cases.
The standard DNA barcode regions, the rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA chloroplast genomic sequences recommended by the Consortium of Barcode of Life (COBOL) were analysed to distinguish wood adulterants of East Indian sandalwood.
Standard polymerase chain reactions with COBOL recommended primers were performed for all three barcode loci. The PCR products after gel elution were sequenced and alignments were performed using CLUSTALX.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences of Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb. as well as with matK sequences of Osyris wightiana Wall ex. Wight could be efficiently utilized for the detection/monitoring of East Indian sandalwood adulterants. Among the two common adulterants O. wightiana and E. monogynum, the former was more similar to S. album and grouped together in the dendrogram.
The study recommends the exploitation of DNA barcoding technique using standard barcodes to trace sandalwood timber adulterants.
KeywordsSantalum album Adulterants DNA barcoding Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
We are grateful to the Kerala Forest Department (KFD) for permission to collect the samples. We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions and comments on the manuscript.
The study was funded by Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment (KSCSTE), Govt. of Kerala, India.
- Ananthapadmanabha HS (2012) Expert sandalwood marketing report, TFS sandalwood project report, pp 69–71Google Scholar
- Anupama C, Balasundaran M, Sujanapal P (2012) Phylogenetic relationships of Santalum album and its adulterants as inferred from nuclear DNA sequences. Int J Agric For 2:150–156Google Scholar
- Bhat KV, Balasundaran M, Balagopalan M (2006) Identification of Santalum album and Osyris lanceolata through morphological and biochemical characteristics and molecular markers to check adulteration. KFRI Res Rep 307:22pGoogle Scholar
- Boner M, Sommer T, Erven C, Forstel H (2007) Stable isotopes as a tool to trace back the origin of wood. In: Proceedings of the international workshop, Fingerprinting methods for the identification of timber origins, October 8-9, Bonn/Germany, pp 47–57Google Scholar
- Costion C, Ford A, Cross H (2011) Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras. PLoS ONE 6: E26841. www.plosone.org
- Degen B, Fladung, M (2008) Use of DNA-markers for tracing illegal logging. In: Degen B (ed) Proceedings of the international workshop “Fingerprinting methods for the identification of timber origins” October 8–9, Landbauforschung, VTI Agriculture and Forestry Research, Sonderheft 321, Germany, pp 6–14Google Scholar
- Fuji T (2007) Outline of the research project »Methods to identify wood species and origin of timber of Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the international symposium on development of improved methods to identify Shorea species wood and its origin, 19Google Scholar
- Hall TA (1999) A user friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acid Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
- Hewson HJ, George AS (1984) Santalaceae. In: George AS (ed) Flora of Australia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, pp 29–67Google Scholar
- IUCN (2009) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1, www.iucnredlist.org
- Lowe AJ, Cross HB (2011) The application of DNA to timber tracking and origin verification. J Int Assoc Wood Anatomists 32:251–262Google Scholar
- Lowe AJ, Wong KN, Tiong TS (2010) A DNA method to verify the integrity of timber supply chains, confirming the legal sourcing of Merbau timber from logging concession to sawmill. Silvae Genet 59:263–268Google Scholar
- Oyen LPA, Dung NX (1999) Plant resources of south-east Asia No. 19, Essential-oil plants, Backhuys, Leiden, the Netherlands, 1999Google Scholar
- Page T, Tate H, Bunt C, Potrawiak A, Berry A (2012) Opportunities for the smallholder sandalwood industry in Vanuatu. ACIAR Technical Reports No 79 Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 67 pGoogle Scholar
- Srimathi RA, Kulkarni HD, Ventkatesan K (1995) Recent advances in research and management of sandal (Santalum album L.) in India. Associated publishing Co, New Delhi, 1995Google Scholar