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Sensory evaluation and storage stability of UHT milk fortified with iron, magnesium and zinc

Abstract

Fortification of staple foods is an effective means of addressing dietary deficiencies of iron, magnesium and zinc, which are common throughout the world. In this work, homogenized whole milk was fortified with iron, magnesium and zinc, individually and collectively, shortly before ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processing (145 °C, 6 s). Sulphates of iron, magnesium and zinc were added to give total concentrations (natural plus added) of approximately 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the recommended daily intakes (RDI) per litre of the UHT milk. The highest concentrations (100% RDI) were 8, 320 and 16 mg.L−1 for iron, magnesium and zinc, respectively. The fortified milks were analysed to determine the distribution of the minerals, their sensory characteristics and their stability during storage. Zinc and iron preferentially became associated with the casein fraction, while most of the magnesium remained in the serum phase. Some sensory panellists could perceive a different taste in UHT milk supplemented to 75% of the RDI per litre, but not in milks supplemented to 50%. During storage at 30 °C of milks supplemented to 50%, changes in flavour were detected in milks supplemented with zinc and iron after 30 and 60 days, respectively; this generally corresponded with increases in oxidation. Viscosity and protein hydrolysis also increased but not to detrimental levels. It was concluded that fortification of UHT milk with magnesium and possibly zinc has considerable potential, but fortification with iron is more challenging due its ability to catalyse oxidation.

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Acknowledgements

The authors extend sincere appreciation to Honest Madziva, Lesleigh Force and Shiou (Aaron) Pang for assistance with the practical lab work. They also thank Olena Kravchuk for her help in statistics. The support of Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Dairy Innovation Australia Ltd is gratefully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Hilton C. Deeth.

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This paper is part of the special issue dedicated to the 2nd Internationl Symposium on Minerals & Dairy Products (MADP2014) held on 26–28th February in Auckland, New Zealand.

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Abdulghani, A.H., Prakash, S., Ali, M.Y. et al. Sensory evaluation and storage stability of UHT milk fortified with iron, magnesium and zinc. Dairy Sci. & Technol. 95, 33–46 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-014-0188-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-014-0188-z

Keywords

  • UHT milk
  • Fortification
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc
  • Sensory