Dairy Science & Technology

, Volume 92, Issue 5, pp 515–540 | Cite as

Manufacture and biochemical characteristics during ripening of Cheddar cheese with variable NaCl and equal moisture content

  • Kirsten Kastberg Møller
  • Fergal P. Rattray
  • Erik Høier
  • Ylva Ardö
Original Paper

Abstract

Reduction of salt in ripened cheese presents an industry challenge due to its profound role in flavour and texture development. This study investigated the biochemical impact of varying the salt concentration in Cheddar cheese while maintaining the moisture content constant, with particular emphasis on proteolysis. Cheeses containing 0.9, 1.3, 1.8 and 2.4 % (w/w) salt and 37.7 ± 0.2 % (w/w) moisture were manufactured by parallel adjustment of the curd grain size, cooking temperature and time, cheddaring, curd chip size and rate of salting and analysed over the course of 270 days ripening. Salt reduction affected chymosin and starter lactocepin activities to accelerate casein degradation and accumulate derived peptides at rates correlating positively or (mostly) inversely with salt concentration. The kinetics of αS1-CN(f1–23) and N-terminal peptides produced thereof and of β-CN(f193–209) were studied in detail. Plasmin activity was affected by cooking treatment and (small) pH differences during ripening but appeared limited overall, due to low levels of pH. Starter lysis showed a strong positive dependency on the salt concentration, and resultant lower contents of free amino acids upon salt reduction were evident. In essence, salt reduction caused a marked decrease in the ratio of peptidase to proteinase activity. Remedies to counterbalance this ratio were discussed in order to avoid excessive accumulation of bitter peptides and promote the stage of maturity. Salt variation left cheese identity unaltered, and the concept of moisture equalisation was proposed as an initial measure to produce high-quality salt-reduced Cheddar.

Keywords

Cheddar Salt reduction Cheese ripening Proteolysis 

食盐浓度变化对切达干酪成熟过程中生化特性的影响

摘要 :

降低成熟干酪中食盐的含量对干酪的风味和质地有较深远的意义,因此该举措目前是工业化生产低盐干酪所面临的一个挑战。该研究考察了切达干酪在水分含量保持不变的情况下盐浓度的变化对干酪生化特性的影响,特别强调蛋白酶解的影响。干酪加工过程中保持水分含量37.7 ± 0.2 % (w/w)不变,使干酪食盐含量分别为0.9、1.3、1.8 和2.4 % (w/w) ,调整干酪凝块颗粒大小、加热温度和时间、凝块碎片大小保持一致,分析干酪在270d的成熟过程中的生化特性。实验结果表明,盐浓度的降低影响了凝乳酶和细胞膜蛋白酶的活性从而加速了酪蛋白的降解和肽的累积,酪蛋白降解速率与盐浓度的降低呈正相关或与盐浓度刚好相反。研究了αS1-CN(f1–23)、N-末端肽和β-CN(f193–209)的动力学。血纤维蛋白溶酶活性在干酪成熟过程中受加热温度和pH的影响,但是由于干酪的pH较低,这种影响不十分明细。发酵剂溶菌的程度依赖食盐的浓度,在盐浓度降低时游离氨基酸的净累积量降低。实际上,盐浓度的降低造成了肽酶和蛋白酶活的比值显著下降,弥补了由于这两种酶活比例的不平衡而导致过多苦味肽形成的问题,并促进了干酪的成熟。因此,在实际生产中,考虑盐浓度的变化以及水分平衡是生产高质量低盐切达干酪的首要措施。

关键词

切达干酪 盐浓度降低 干酪成熟 蛋白酶解 

References

  1. Ardö Y, Polychroniadou A (1999) Laboratory manual for chemical analysis of cheese. European Communities, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  2. Ardö Y, Mansson HL, Hedenberg A, Larsson PO (1989) Studies of peptidolysis during early maturation and its influence on low-fat cheese quality. Milchwissenschaft 44:485–495Google Scholar
  3. Baankreis R, van Schalkwijk S, Alting AC, Exterkate FA (1995) The occurrence of two intracellular oligoendopeptidases in Lactococcus lactis and their significance for peptide conversion in cheese. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 44:386–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bansal N, Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (2009a) Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties. J Dairy Res 76:290–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bansal N, Drake MA, Piraino P, Broe ML, Harboe M, Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (2009b) Suitability of recombinant camel (Camel dromedarius) chymosin as a coagulant for Cheddar cheese. Int Dairy J 19:510–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Broadbent JR, Barnes M, Brennand C, Strickland M, Houck K, Johnson ME, Steele JL (2002) Contribution of Lactococcus lactis cell envelope proteinase specificity to peptide accumulation and bitterness in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1778–1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bütikofer U, Ardö Y (1999) Quantitative determination of free amino acids in cheese. In: IDF General Secretariat (ed) Chemical methods for evaluating proteolysis in cheese maturation (part 2). Bulletin no. 337 of the International Dairy Federation. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp 24–32Google Scholar
  8. Cruz AG, Faria JAF, Pollonio MAR, Bolini HMA, Celeghini RMS, Granato D, Shah NP (2011) Cheeses with reduced sodium content: effects on functionality, public health benefits and sensory properties. Trends Food Sci Tech 22:276–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Exterkate FA, Alting AC (1995) The role of starter peptidases in the initial proteolytic events leading to amino acids in Gouda cheese. Int Dairy J 5:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Exterkate FA, Lagerwerf FM, Haverkamp J, van Schalkwijk S (1997) The selectivity of chymosin action on αS1- and β-caseins in solution is modulated in cheese. Int Dairy J 7:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guillou H, Miranda G, Pelissier J-P (1991) Hydrolysis of β-casein by gastric proteases. I. Comparison of proteolytic action of bovine chymosin and pepsin A. Int J Peptide Protein Res 37:494–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guinee TP, Fox PF (2004) Salt in cheese: physical, chemical and biological aspects. In: Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (eds) Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology, Volume 1: general aspects. Elsevier Academic, San Diego, pp 207–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hannon JA, Wilkinson MG, Delahunty CM, Wallace JM, Morrissey PA, Beresford TP (2003) Use of autolytic starter systems to accelerate the ripening of Cheddar cheese. Int Dairy J 13:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group (1988) Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results of 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. BMJ 297:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ISO5534:IDF4 (2004) Cheese and processed cheese—determination of the total solids content (reference method). International Dairy Federation, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  16. ISO5943:IDF88 (2006) Cheese and processed cheese products—determination of chloride content—potentiometric titration method. International Dairy Federation, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  17. ISO21543:IDF201 (2006) Milk products—guidelines for the application of near infrared spectrometry. International Dairy Federation, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  18. ISO11815:IDF157 (2007) Milk—determination of total milk-clotting activity of bovine rennets. International Dairy Federation, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  19. Kelly M, Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (1996) Effect of salt-in-moisture on proteolysis in Cheddar-type cheese. Milchwissenschaft 51:498–501Google Scholar
  20. Larsson M, Zakora M, Dejmek P, Ardö Y (2006) Primary proteolysis studied in a cast cheese made from microfiltered milk. Int Dairy J 16:623–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lawrence RC, Gilles J, Creamer LK, Crow VL, Heap HA, Honoré CG (2004) Cheddar cheese and related dry-salted cheese varieties. In: Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (eds) Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology. Volume 2: major cheese groups. Elsevier Academic, San Diego, pp 71–102Google Scholar
  22. Lowrie RJ, Lawrence RC, Pearce LE, Richards EL (1972) Cheddar cheese flavour. III. The growth of lactic streptococci during cheesemaking and the effect on bitterness development. N Z J Dairy Sci Technol 7:44–50Google Scholar
  23. McSweeney PLH, Fox PF (2004) Metabolism of residual lactose and of lactate and citrate. In: Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (eds) Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology, volume 1: general aspects. Elsevier Academic, San Diego, pp 361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McSweeney PLH, Olson NF, Fox PF, Healy A (1994) Proteolysis of bovine αS2-casein by chymosin. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 199:429–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reid JR, Coolbear T (1999) Specificity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 proteinase, lactocepin III, in low-water-activity, high-salt-concentration humectant systems and its stability compared with that of lactocepin I. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:2947–2953Google Scholar
  26. Reid JR, Coolbear T, Ayers JS, Coolbear KP (1997) The action of chymosin on κ-casein and its macropeptide: effect of pH and analysis of products of secondary hydrolysis. Int Dairy J 7:559–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Richardson BC, Pearce KN (1981) The determination of plasmin in dairy products. N Z J Dairy Sci Technol 16:209–220Google Scholar
  28. Rulikowska A, Kilcawley KN, Doolan I, Alonso-Gomez M, Beresford TP, Wilkinson MG (2008) Influence of sodium chloride on the quality of Cheddar cheese. In: Poster from the 5th IDF symposium on cheese ripening, Bern. http://www.cheese2008.ch/download.php?filename=Kilcawley_2.pdf. Accessed 1 Nov 2011
  29. Schroeder CL, Bodyfelt FW, Wyatt CJ, McDaniel MR (1988) Reduction of sodium chloride in Cheddar cheese: effect on sensory, microbiological, and chemical properties. J Dairy Sci 71:2010–2020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soeryapranata E, Powers JR, Fajarrini F, Weller KM, Hill HH, Siems WF (2002) Relationship between MALDI-TOF analysis of β-CN f193–209 concentration and sensory evaluation of bitterness intensity of aged Cheddar cheese. J Agric Food Chem 50:4900–4905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sousa MJ, Ardö Y, McSweeney PLH (2001) Advances in the study of proteolysis during cheese ripening. Int Dairy J 11:327–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stadhouders J, Hup G, van der Waals CB (1977) Determination of calf rennet in cheese. Neth Milk Dairy J 31:3–15Google Scholar
  33. Thomas TD, Pearce KN (1981) Influence of salt on lactose fermentation and proteolysis in Cheddar cheese. N Z J Dairy Sci Technol 16:253–259Google Scholar
  34. Webster JL, Dunford EK, Hawkes C, Neal BC (2011) Salt reduction initiatives around the world. J Hypertens 29:1043–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilkinson MG, Guinee TP, Fox PF (1994) Factors which may influence the determination of autolysis of starter bacteria during Cheddar cheese ripening. Int Dairy J 4:141–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirsten Kastberg Møller
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fergal P. Rattray
    • 2
  • Erik Høier
    • 2
  • Ylva Ardö
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksberg CDenmark
  2. 2.Chr. Hansen A/SHørsholmDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Food Science, Section of Dairy Technology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksberg CDenmark

Personalised recommendations