Dairy Science & Technology

, Volume 92, Issue 5, pp 419–438 | Cite as

A mini-review on health and nutritional aspects of cheese with a focus on bioactive peptides

  • Iván López-Expósito
  • Lourdes Amigo
  • Isidra RecioEmail author
Review Paper


This paper is a mini-review on the nutritional value of cheese with a focus on the identification of different biologically active peptides in cheese and the evidence built about their health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, cheese is a rich source of essential nutrients such as proteins, vitamins, minerals, and also short chain fatty acids that are important as part of a healthy diet. In addition, during cheese ripening, casein is hydrolyzed into a large variety of peptides by proteases and peptidases from milk, rennet, starter culture, and secondary microbial flora. Some of these peptides are structurally similar to endogenous peptides that play a crucial role in the organism as hormones, neurotransmitters, or antibiotics. Some of them can also survive gastrointestinal digestion or serve as precursors of the final peptide form. Furthermore, some of these cheese-derived peptides can interact with the same receptors than endogenous peptides and exert agonistic or antagonistic effects in the organism. This paper reviews the identification of different biologically active peptides in cheese and the evidence built about their health benefits. Activities have been mainly proven by using in vitro assays and in cell cultures, but in some cases the activity has been also assessed in animal models. In any case, there is still a long way to demonstrate the “hidden” health benefits of cheese in humans.干酪中生物活性肽的健康和营养-综述


Cheese Composition Health Nutrition Bioactive peptides 





干酪 组成 健康 营养 生物活性肽 



This work has received financial support from the projects AGL2008-01713, AGL2011-24643, Consolider Ingenio 2010 FUN-C-Food CSD2007-063 from Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, and project P2009/AGR-1469 from Comunidad de Madrid.


  1. Adamson NJ, Reynolds EC (1995) Characterisation of tryptic casein phosphopeptides prepared under industrially relevant conditions. Biotechnol Bioeng 45:196–204Google Scholar
  2. Addeo F, Chianese L, Salzano A, Sacchi R, Capuccio U, Ferranti P, Malorni A (1992) Characterization of the 12 % trichloroacetic acid-insoluble oligopeptides of Parmiggiano Reggiano. J Dairy Res 59:401–411Google Scholar
  3. Ardö Y, Lilbaek H, Kristiansen KR, Zakora M, Otte J (2007) Identification of large phosphopeptides from β-casein that characteristically accumulated during ripening of the semi-hard cheese Herrgård. Int Dairy J 17:513–524Google Scholar
  4. Astrup A, Dyerberg J, Elwood P, Hermansen K, Hu FB, Jakobsen MU, Kok FJ, Krauss RM, Lecerf JM, Legrand P, Nestel P, Risérus U, Sanders T, Sinclair A, Stender S, Tholstrup T, Willett W (2011) The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010? Am J Clin Nutr 93:684–688Google Scholar
  5. Ash A, Wilbey A (2010) The nutritional significance of cheese in the UK diet. Int J Dairy Technol 63:305–319Google Scholar
  6. Barba G, Russo P (2006) Dairy foods, dietary calcium and obesity: a short review of evidence. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16:445–451Google Scholar
  7. Brantl V, Teschemacher H, Blasig J, Henschen A, Lottspeich F (1981) Opioid activities of beta-casomorphins. Life Sci 28:1903–1909Google Scholar
  8. Belury MA (2002) Inhibition of carcinogenesis by conjugated linoleic acid: potential mechanisms of action. J Nutr 132:2995–2998Google Scholar
  9. Bennett T, Desmond A, Harrington M, McDonagh D, FitzGerald R, Flynn A, Cashman KD (2000) The effect of high intakes of casein and casein phosphopeptides on calcium absorption in the rat. Br J Nutr 83:673–680Google Scholar
  10. Bouhallabb S, Cinga V, Aít-Oukhatar N, Bureau F, Neuville D, Arhan P, Maubois JL, Bouglé D (2002) Influence of various phosphopeptides of caseins on iron absorption. J Agric Food Chem 50:7127–7130Google Scholar
  11. Boutrou R, Coirre E, Jardin J, Léonil (2010) Phosphorylation and coordination bond of mineral inhibit the hydrolysis of the β-casein (1–25) peptide by intestinal Brush-Border membrane enzymes. J Agric Food Chem 58:7955–7961Google Scholar
  12. Brandsch M, Brust P, Neubert K, Ermisch A (1994) β-Casomorphins chemical signals of intestinal transport systems. In: Brantl H, Teschemacher H (eds) β-Casomorphins and related peptides. Recent development. VCH, Weinheim pp 207–219Google Scholar
  13. Bütikofer U, Meyer J, Sieber R, Walther B, Wechsler D (2008) Occurrence of the angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro in different cheese varieties of Swiss origin. J Dairy Sci 91:29–38Google Scholar
  14. Bütikofer U, Meyer J, Sieber R, Wechsler D (2007) Quantification of the angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro in hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses. Int Dairy J 17:968–975Google Scholar
  15. Chabance B, Marteau P, Rambaud JC, Migliore-Samour D, Boynard M, Perrotin P, Guillet R, Jolles P, Fiat AM (1998) Casein peptides release and passage to the blood in human during digestion of milk or yogurt. Biochimie 80:155–165Google Scholar
  16. Chin SF, Liu W, Storkson JM, Ha YL, Pariza MW (1992) Dietary sources of conjugated dieonic isomers of linoleic acid, a newly recognized class of anticarconogens. J Food Compos Anal 5:185–197Google Scholar
  17. Clare DA, Swaisgood HE (2000) Bioactive milk peptides: a prospectus. J Dairy Sci 83:1187–1195Google Scholar
  18. Claustre J, Toumi F, Trompette A, Jourdan G, Guignard H, Chayvialle JA, Plaisance P (2002) Effects of peptides derived from dietary proteins on mucus secretion in rat jejunum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 283:521–528Google Scholar
  19. Cochrane NJ, Reynolds EC (2009) Casein phosphopeptides in oral health. In: Wilson M (ed) Food constituents and oral health: current status and future prospects. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 185–219Google Scholar
  20. Daniel H, Vohwinkel M, Rehner G (1990) Effect of casein and beta-casomorphins on gastrointestinal motility in rats. J Nutr 120:252–257Google Scholar
  21. De Moreno de LeBlanc A, Matar C, LeBlanc N, Perdigon G (2005) Effects of milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus R389 on a murine breast cancer model. Breast Cancer Res 7:R477–R486Google Scholar
  22. De la Fuente MA, Juárez M (2001) Los quesos: Una fuente de nutrientes. Aliment Nutr Salud 8:75–83Google Scholar
  23. De Noni I, Cattaneo S (2010) Occurrence of beta-casomorphins 5 and 7 in commercial dairy products and in their digests following in-vitro simulated gastro-intestinal digestion. Food Chem 119:560–566Google Scholar
  24. De Simone C, Ferranti P, Picariello G, Scognamiglio I, Dicitore A, Addeo F, Chianese L, Stiuso P (2011) Peptides from water buffalo cheese whey induced senescence cell death via ceramide secretion in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Mol Nutr Food Res 55:229–238Google Scholar
  25. De Simone C, Picariello G, Mamone G, Stiuso P, Dicitore A, Vanacore D, Chianese L, Addeo F, Ferranti P (2009) Characterization and cytomodulatory properties of peptides from Mozzarella di Bufala Campana cheese whey. J Pept Sci 15:251–258Google Scholar
  26. Dupas C, Adt I, Cottaz A, Boutrou R, Molle D, Jardin J, Jouvet T, Degraeve PA (2009) Chromatographic procedure for semi-quantitative evaluation of caseinphosphopeptides in cheese. Dairy Sci Technol 89:519–529Google Scholar
  27. Ebringer L, Ferencik M, Krajcovic J (2008) Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products—review. Folia Microbiol 53:378–394Google Scholar
  28. European Food Safety Authority (2009) Scientific Report prepared by a DATEX working group on the potential health impact of β-casomorphins and related peptides. EFSA Sci Rep 231:1–107Google Scholar
  29. Erba D, Ciappellano S, Testolin G (2001) Effect of casein phosphopeptides on inhibition of calcium intestinal absorption due to phosphate. Nutr Res 21:649–656Google Scholar
  30. Erba D, Ciappellano S, Testolin G (2002) Effect of the ratio of casein phosphopeptides to calcium (w/w) on passive calcium transport in the distal small intestine of rats. J Nutr 18:743–746Google Scholar
  31. Ferranti P, Barone F, Chianese L, Addeo F, Scaloni A, Pellegrino L, Resmini P (1997) Phosphopeptides from Grana Padano cheese: nature, origin and changes during ripening. J Dairy Res 64:601–615Google Scholar
  32. Ferraretto A, Gravaghi C, Fiorelli A, Tettamanti G (2003) Casein-derived bioactive phosphopeptides: role of phosphorylation and primary structure in promoting calcium uptake by HT-29 tumor cells. FEBS Lett 551:92–98Google Scholar
  33. Floris R, Recio I, Berkhout B, Visser S (2003) Antibacterial and antiviral effects of milk proteins and derivatives thereof. Curr Pharm Des 9:1257–1273Google Scholar
  34. Froetschel MA (1996) Bioactive peptides in digesta that regulate gastrointestinal function and intake. Am Soc Animal Sci 74:2500–2508Google Scholar
  35. Gagnaire V, Molle D, Herrouin M, Leonil J (2001) Peptides identified during Emmental cheese ripening: origin and proteolytic systems involved. J Agric Food Chem 49:4402–4413Google Scholar
  36. German JB (1999) Butyric acid: a role in cancer prevention. Nutr Bull 24:293–299Google Scholar
  37. German JB, Dillard CJ (2006) Composition, structure and absorption of milk lipids: a source of energy, fat-soluble nutrients and bioactive molecules. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46:57–92Google Scholar
  38. Gómez-Ruiz JA, Ramos M, Recio I (2002) Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides in Manchego cheeses manufactured with different starter cultures. Int Dairy J 12:697–706Google Scholar
  39. Gómez-Ruiz JA, Ramos M, Recio I (2004a) Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of peptides isolated from Manchego cheese. Stability under simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Int Dairy J 14:1075–1080Google Scholar
  40. Gómez-Ruiz JA, Ramos M, Recio I (2004b) Identification and formation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides in Manchego cheese by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1054:269–277Google Scholar
  41. Gómez-Ruiz JA, Taborda G, Amigo L, Recio I, Ramos M (2006) Identification of ACE-inhibitory peptides in different Spanish cheeses by tandem mass spectrometry. Eur Food Res Technol 223:595–601Google Scholar
  42. Gravaghi C, Del Favero E, Cantu L, Donetti E, Bedoni M, Fiorilli A, Tettamanti G, Ferrareto A (2007) Casein phosphopeptide promotion of calcium uptake in HT-29 cell-relation between biological activity and supramolecular structure. FEBS J 274:4999–5011Google Scholar
  43. Grecksch G, Schweigert C, Matthies H (1981) Evidence for analgesic activity of beta-casomorphin in rats. Neurosci Lett 27:325–328Google Scholar
  44. Gupta A, Mann B, Kumar R, Sangwan RB (2009) Antioxidant activity of Cheddar cheeses at different stages of ripening. Int J Dairy Technol 62:339–347Google Scholar
  45. Gupta A, Mann B, Kumar R, Sangwan RB (2010) Identification of antioxidant peptides in Cheddar cheese made with adjunct culture Lactobacillus casei ssp casei 300. Milchwissenschaft 65:396–399Google Scholar
  46. Hansen M, Sandstrom B, Jensen M, Sorensen SS (1997a) Casein phosphopeptides improve zinc and calcium absorption from rice-based but not from whole-grain infant cereal. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 24:56–62Google Scholar
  47. Hansen M, Sandstrom B, Jensen M, Sorensen SS (1997b) Effect of casein phosphopeptides on zinc and calcium absorption from bread meals. J Trace Elem Med Biol 11:143–149Google Scholar
  48. Heaney RP (1996) Calcium. In: Bilezkian JP, Raisz GA, Rodan GA (eds) Principles of bone biology. Academic, New York pp 1007–1018Google Scholar
  49. Hernández-Ledesma B, Contreras MM, Recio I (2011) Antihypertensive peptides: production, bioavailability and incorporation into foods. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 165:23–35Google Scholar
  50. Hernández-Ledesma B, Dávalos A, Bartolomé B, Amigo L (2005) Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin: identification of active peptides by HPLC–MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem 53:588–593Google Scholar
  51. Hill RD, Lahov E, Givol D (1974) A rennin-sensitive bond in alpha and beta casein. J Dairy Res 41:147–153Google Scholar
  52. IDF (2010) The world dairy situation 2010. Bulletin of the IDF 446:197Google Scholar
  53. Jakobsen MU, O’Reilly EJ, Heitmann BL, Pereira MA, Bälter K, Fraser GE, Goldbourt U, Hallmans G, Knekt P, Liu S, Pietinen P, Spiegelman D, Stevens J, Virtamo J, Willett WC, Ascherio A (2009) Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 89:1425–1432Google Scholar
  54. Jarmolowska B, Kostyra E, Krawczuck S, Kostyra H (1999) β-Casomorphin-7 isolated from Brie cheese. J Sci Food Agr 79:1788–1792Google Scholar
  55. Keys A (1984) Serum cholesterol response to dietary cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 40:351–359Google Scholar
  56. Kitts DD (2005) Antioxidant properties of casein phosphopeptides. Trends Food Sci 16:549–554Google Scholar
  57. Kitts DD, Nakamura S (2006) Calcium-enriched casein phosphopeptide stimulates release of IL-6 cytokine in human epithelial intestinal cell line. J Dairy Res 73:44–48Google Scholar
  58. Koba K, Akahoshi A, Yamasaki M, Tanaka K, Yamada K, Iwata T, Kamegai T, Tsutsumi K, Sugano M (2002) Dietary conjugated linolenic acid in relation to CLA differently modifies body fat mass and serum and liver lipid levels in rats. Lipids 37:343–350Google Scholar
  59. Korhonen H, Pihlanto A (2006) Bioactive peptides: production and functionality. Int Dairy J 16:945–960Google Scholar
  60. Kostyra E, Sienkiewicz-Sztapka E, Jarmolowska B, Krawczuck S, Kostyra H (2004) Opioid peptides derived from milk proteins. Polish J Food Nutr Sci 13:25–35Google Scholar
  61. Lee YS, Noguchi T, Naito H (1980) Phosphopeptides and soluble calcium in the small intestine of rats given a casein diet. Br J Nutr 43:457–467Google Scholar
  62. Legrand P, Rioux V (2010) The complex and important cellular and metabolic functions of saturated fatty acids. Lipids 45:941–946Google Scholar
  63. Lignitto L, Cavatorta V, Balzan S, Gabai G, Galaverna G, Novelli E, Sforza S, Segato S (2010) Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Asiago d’ allevo cheese. Int Dairy J 20:11–17Google Scholar
  64. Liu F, Ooi VEC, Chang ST (1997) Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts. Life Sci 60:763–771Google Scholar
  65. López-Expósito I, Recio I (2006) Antibacterial activity of peptides and folding variants from milk proteins. Int Dairy J 16:1294–1305Google Scholar
  66. López-Expósito I, Recio I (2008) Protective effects of milk peptides: antibacterial and antitumor properties. Adv Exp Med Biol 606:271–293Google Scholar
  67. Losito I, Carbonara T, De Bari MD, Gobetti M, Palmiseno F, Rizzello CG, Zambonin PG (2006) Identification of peptides in antimicrobial fractions of cheese extracts by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to a two-dimensional liquid chromatographic separation. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 20:447–455Google Scholar
  68. Lund M, Ardö Y (2004) Purification and identification of water soluble phosphopeptides from cheese using Fe(III) affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 52:6616–6622Google Scholar
  69. Mader JS, Salsman JS, Conrad DM, Hoskin DW (2005) Bovine lactoferricin selectively induces apoptosis in human leukemia and carcinoma cell lines. Mol Cancer Ther 4:612–624Google Scholar
  70. Malkoski M, Dashper SG, O’Brien-Simpson NM, Talbo GH, Macris M, Cross KJ (2001) Kappacin, a novel antibacterial peptide from bovine milk. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2309–2315Google Scholar
  71. Martínez-Maqueda D, Miralles B, Recio I, Hernández-Ledesma B (2012) Antihypertensive peptides from food proteins: a review. Food Funct 3:350–361Google Scholar
  72. Mc Namara DJ (2000) Review: dietary cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1529:310–320Google Scholar
  73. Meisel H (1998) Overview on milk protein-derived peptides. Int Dairy J 8:363–373Google Scholar
  74. Meisel H, FitzGerald RJ (2003) Biofunctional peptides from milk proteins: mineral binding and cytomodulatory effects. Curr Pharm Des 9:1289–1295Google Scholar
  75. Meisel H, Frister H (1988) Chemical characterization of a caseino-phosphopeptide isolated from in vitro digests of a casein diet. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 369:1275–1279Google Scholar
  76. Meyer J, Bütikofer U, Walther B, Wechsler D, Sieber R (2009) Changes in angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibition and concentrations of the tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro during ripening of different cheese varieties. J Dairy Sci 92:826–836Google Scholar
  77. Miguel M, Gómez-Ruiz JA, Recio I, Aleixandre A (2010) Changes in arterial blood pressure after single oral administration of milk casein-derived peptides in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Mol Nutr Food Res 54:1–6Google Scholar
  78. Mills S, Ross RP, Hill C, FitzGerald GF, Stanton C (2011) Milk intelligence: mining milk for bioactive substances associated with human health. Int Dairy J 21:377–401Google Scholar
  79. Nagpal R, Behare P, Rana R, Kumar A, Kumar M, Arora S, Morotta F, Jain S, Yadav H (2011) Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and their health beneficial potentials: an update. Food Funct 2:18–27Google Scholar
  80. Naito H, Suzuki H (1974) Further evidence for the formation of phosphopeptide in the intestinal lumen from dietary β-casein. Agric Biol Chem 38:1534–1545Google Scholar
  81. O’Brien NM, O’Connor TP (2004) Nutritional aspects of cheese. In: Fox PF, Guinee TP, Cogan TM, McSweeney PLH (eds) Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology. General aspects, vol 1, 3rd edn. Elsevier Academic, London pp 576–581Google Scholar
  82. Ong L, Henriksson A, Shah NP (2007) Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory activity in Cheddar cheeses made with the addition of probiotic Lactobacillus casei sp. Lait 87:149–165Google Scholar
  83. Ong L, Shah NP (2008) Influence of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. helveticus on proteolysis, organic acid profiles, and ACE-inhibitory activity of Cheddar cheeses ripened at 4, 8, and 12 °C. J Food Sci 73:111–120Google Scholar
  84. Pariza MW, Park Y, Cook ME (2001) The biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Prog Lipid Res 40:283–298Google Scholar
  85. Parodi PW (2004) Milk fat in human nutrition. Aust J Dairy Technol 59:3–59Google Scholar
  86. Parodi PW (2007) A role for milk proteins and their peptides in cancer prevention. Curr Pharm Des 13:813–828Google Scholar
  87. Parrot S, Degraeve P, Curia C, Martial-Gros A (2003) In vitro study on digestion of peptides in Emmental cheese: analytical evaluation and influence on angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides. Nahrung 47:87–94Google Scholar
  88. Paul M, van Hekken DL (2010) Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model queso fresco cheeses. J Dairy Sci 94:2280–2284Google Scholar
  89. Pérès JM, Bouhallab S, Bureau F, Neuville D, Maubois JL, Devroede G, Arhan R, Bouglé D (1999) Mechanism of absorption of casein phosphopeptide bound iron. J Nutr Biochem 10:215–222Google Scholar
  90. Phelan M, Aherne A, FitzGerald RJ, O’Brien NM NM (2009) Casein-derived bioactive peptides: biological effects, industrial uses, safety aspects and regulatory status. Int Dairy J 19:643–654Google Scholar
  91. Phelan M, Kerins D (2011) The potential role of milk-derived peptides in cardiovascular disease. Food Funct 2:153–167Google Scholar
  92. Pritchard SR, Phillips M, Kailasapathy K (2010) Identification of bioactive peptides in commercial Cheddar cheese. Food Res Int 43:1545–1548Google Scholar
  93. Renner E (1987) Nutritional aspects of cheese In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology. General aspects, vol 1. Elsevier Applied Science, London pp 345–363Google Scholar
  94. Rioux V, Catheline D, Bouriel M, Legrand P (2005) Dietary myristic acid at physiologically relevant levels increase the tissue content of C20:5 n−3 and C20:3 n−6 in the rat. Reprod Nutr Dev 45:599–612Google Scholar
  95. Rioux V, Daval S, Guillou H, Jan S, Legrand P (2003) Although is rapidly metabolized in cultured rat hepatocytes, lauric acid is used for protein acylation. Reprod Nutr Dev 43:419–430Google Scholar
  96. Rioux V, Legrand P (2007) Saturated fatty acids: simple molecular structures with complex cellular functions. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10:752–758Google Scholar
  97. Rizzello CG, Losito I, Gobetti M, Carbonara T, De Bari MD, Zambonin PG (2005) Antibacterial activity of peptides from the water-soluble extracts of Italian cheese varieties. J Dairy Sci 88:2348–2360Google Scholar
  98. Roudot-Algaron F, Le Bars D, Kerhoas L, Einhorn J, Gripon JC (1994) Phosphopeptides from Comté cheese: nature and origin. J Food Sci 59(544-547):560Google Scholar
  99. Roy MK, Kuwabara Y, Hara Y, Watanabe Y, Tamai Y (2002) Peptides from the N-terminal end of bovine lactoferrin induce apoptosis in human leukemic (HL-60) cells. J Dairy Sci 85:2065–2074Google Scholar
  100. Ryder JW, Portocarrero CP, Song XM (2001) Isomer-specific antidiabetic properties of conjugated linoleic acid. Improved glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle insulin action, and UCP-2 gene expression. Diabetes 50:1149–1157Google Scholar
  101. Ryhänen EL, Pihlanto-Leppälä A, Pahkala E (2001) A new type of ripened, low-fat cheese with bioactive properties. Int Dairy J 11:441–447Google Scholar
  102. Saito T, Nakamura T, Kitazawa H, Kawai Y, Itoh T (2000) Isolation and structural analysis of antihypertensive peptides that exist naturally in Gouda cheese. J Dairy Sci 83:1434–1440Google Scholar
  103. Scholtz-Ahrens KE, Schrezenmeir J (2000) Effects of bioactive substances in milk on mineral and trace element metabolism with special reference to casein phosphopeptides. Br J Nutr 84(suppl19):S147–S153Google Scholar
  104. Schuster GS, Dirksen TR, Ciarlone AE, Burnett GW, Reynolds MT, Lankford MT (1980) Anticaries and antiplaque potential of free fatty acids in vitro and in vivo. Pharm Ther Dent 5:25–33Google Scholar
  105. Sforza S, Ferroni L, Galaverna G, Dossena A, Marchelli R (2003) Extraction, semi-quantification, and fast on-line identification of oligopeptides in Grana Padano cheese by HPLC–MS. J Agric Food Chem 51:2130–2135Google Scholar
  106. Shimada K, Fujikawa K, Yahara K, Nakamura T (1992) Antioxidative properties of xanthane on the auto-oxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J Agric Food Chem 40:945–948Google Scholar
  107. Sieber R, Bütikofer U, Egger Ch, Portmann R, Walther B, Wechsler D (2010) ACE-inhibitory activity and ACE-inhibiting peptides in different cheese varieties. Dairy Sci Technol 90:47–73Google Scholar
  108. Sienkiewicz-Szlapka E, Jarmolowska B, Krawczuk S, Kostyra E, Iwan M (2009) Contents of agonistic and antagonistic peptides in different cheese varieties. Int Dairy J 19:258–263Google Scholar
  109. Singh TK, Fox PF, Healy A (1995) Water-soluble peptides in Cheddar cheese: isolation and identification of peptides in the diafiltration retentate of the water-soluble fraction. J Dairy Res 62:629–640Google Scholar
  110. Singh TK, Fox PF, Healvy (1997) Isolation and identification of further peptides in the diafiltration retentate of the water-soluble fraction of Cheddar cheese. J Dairy Res 64:433–443Google Scholar
  111. Singh M, Rosen CL, Chang K, Haddad GG (1999) Plasma β-casomorphin-7 immunoreactive peptide increases after milk ingestion in newborn but not in adult dogs. Pediatr Res 26:34–38Google Scholar
  112. Smacchi E, Gobbetti M (1998) Peptides from several Italian cheeses inhibitory to proteolytic enzymes of lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 948 and to the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme. Enzym Microb Technol 22:687–694Google Scholar
  113. Stepaniak L, Fox PF, Sorhaug T, Grabska J (1995) Effect of peptides from the sequence 58–72 of beta-casein on the activity of endopeptidase, aminopeptidase, and X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis spp lactis MG1363. J Agric Food Chem 43:849–853Google Scholar
  114. Stepaniak L, Jedrychowski L, Wroblewska B, Sørhaug T (2001) Immunoreactivity and inhibition of angiotensin-I converting enzyme and lactococcal oligopeptidase by peptides from cheese Ital. J Food Sci 13:373–381Google Scholar
  115. Taira T, Hilaviki LA, Aalto J, Hilaviki I (1990) Effect of beta-casomorphin on neonatal sleep in rats. Peptides 11:1–4Google Scholar
  116. Teucher B, Majsak-Newman G, Dainty JR, McDonagh D, FitzGerald RJ, Fairweather-Tait S (2006) Calcium absorption is not increased by caseinophosphopeptides. Am J Clin Nutr 84:162–166Google Scholar
  117. Tholstrup T (2006) Dairy products and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 17:1–10Google Scholar
  118. Thormar H, Hilmarsson H (2007) The role of microbicidal lipids in host defense against pathogens and their potential as therapeutic agents. Chem Phys Lipids 150:1–11Google Scholar
  119. Thormar H, Isaacs EE, Kim KS, Brown HR (1994) Inactivation of visna virus and other enveloped viruses by free fatty acids and monoglycerides. Ann N Y Acad Sci 724:465–471Google Scholar
  120. Tidona F, Criscione A, Guastella AM, Zuccaro A, Bordonaro S, Marletta D (2009) Bioactive peptides in dairy products. Ital J Anim Sci 8:315–340Google Scholar
  121. Tirelli A, De Noni I, Resmini P (1997) Bioactive peptides in milk products. Ital J Food Sci 2:91–98Google Scholar
  122. Toelstede S, Hofmann T (2008) Sensomics mapping and identification of the key bitter metabolites in Gouda cheese. J Agric Food Chem 56:2795–2804Google Scholar
  123. Torres-Llanez MJ, González-Córdova AF, Hernández-Mendoza A, Garcia HS, Vallejo-Cordoba B (2011) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity in Mexican Fresco cheese. J Dairy Sci 94:3794–3800Google Scholar
  124. Tulipano G, Bulgari O, Chessa S, Nardone A, Cocchi D, Caroli A (2010) Direct effects of casein phosphopeptides on growth and differentiation of in vitro cultured osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). Regul Pept 160:168–174Google Scholar
  125. Umbach M, Teschemacher H, Praetorius K, Hirschhauser R, Bostedt H (1985) Demonstration of a beta-casomorphin immunoreactive material in the plasma of newborn calves after milk intake. Regul Pept 12:223–230Google Scholar
  126. Wahle KWJ, Heys SD, Rotondo D (2004) Conjugated linoleic acids: are they beneficial or detrimental to health? Prog Lipid Res 43:553–587Google Scholar
  127. Walther B, Schmid A, Sieber R, Wehrmüller K (2008) Cheese in nutrition and health. Dairy Sci Technol 88:389–405Google Scholar
  128. Wang H, Cui L, Chen W, Zhang H (2011) An application in Gouda cheese manufacture for a strain of Lactobacillus helveticus ND01. Int J Dairy Technol 64:386–393Google Scholar
  129. Yang M, Cook ME (2003) Dietary conjugated linoleic acid decreased cachexia, macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, and modifies splenocyte cytokines production. Exp Biol Med 228:51–58Google Scholar
  130. Yang N, Strøm MB, Mekonnen SM, Svendsen JS, Rekdal Ø (2004) The effects of shortening lactoferrin derived peptides against tumour cells, bacteria and normal human cells. J Pept Sci 10:37–46Google Scholar
  131. Yasuda S, Ohkura N, Suzuki K, Yamasaki M, Nishiyama K, Kobayashi H, Hoshi Y, Kadooka Y, Igoshi K (2010) Effects of highly ripened cheeses on HL-60 human leukemia cells: antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic DNA damage. J Dairy Sci 93:1393–1400Google Scholar
  132. Zemel ML, Miller SL (2004) Dietary calcium and dairy modulation of adiposity and obesity risk. Nutr Rev 62:125–131Google Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iván López-Expósito
    • 1
  • Lourdes Amigo
    • 1
  • Isidra Recio
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CIAL) (CSIC–UAM)MadridSpain

Personalised recommendations