Advertisement

Dairy Science & Technology

, Volume 91, Issue 4, pp 431–440 | Cite as

Ginger protease used as coagulant enhances the proteolysis and sensory quality of Peshawari cheese compared to calf rennet

  • Malik Muhammad Hashim
  • Mingsheng DongEmail author
  • Muhammad Farooq Iqbal
  • Wang Li
  • Xiaohong Chen
Original Paper

Abstract

The worldwide increase in cheese consumption combined with a scarcity of rennet as well as ethical concerns have resulted in a global interest for natural milk coagulants from plant sources. In this study, the influence of ginger protease in comparison to calf rennet on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of Peshawari cheese manufactured from cow’s milk was examined. For most of the physicochemical parameters (fat, protein, lactose, acidity, pH), and the main groups of microorganisms (total viable, enterobacteria, Lactobacilli, and molds and yeasts) investigated, no significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed between the two cheeses made by using different coagulants. However, significantly lower (P < 0.05) levels of moisture and higher levels of soluble nitrogen were observed in the cheese produced by ginger protease compared to that made using calf rennet. The main sensory attributes (appearance, body texture, and flavor) were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) in Peshawari cheese prepared with ginger protease. Importantly, no bitterness was noted by the sensory panel in the Peshawari cheese made with ginger protease. The results reveal that the ginger protease may have potential application for the manufacture of Peshawari cheese.

Keywords

Peshawari cheese Ginger protease Physicochemical characteristics Microbiology Sensory attributes 

摘要- 生姜蛋白酶作为凝乳剂促进 Peshawari 干酪蛋白质水解和改善感官质量

世界范围内奶酪消费量不断增加, 而传统凝乳剂小牛皱胃酶供应相对不足以及出于宗教方面的考虑, 使得一些植物来源的凝乳酶研究引起了广泛兴趣。本文以牛奶为原料, 比较了生姜蛋白酶和小牛皱胃酶作为凝乳剂制备的 Peshawari 奶酪在物化特性、微生物特性以及感官特性方面的差异。结果表明, 用两种凝乳酶制备的奶酪, 其大部分的物化特性指标 (脂肪、蛋白质、乳糖、酸度、pH) 以及主要的微生物指标 (活菌总数、肠道菌、乳酸菌、真菌和酵母) 均无明显差异 (P > 0.05)。但以生姜蛋白酶为凝乳剂制备的奶酪其含水量明显低于用小牛皱胃酶生产的奶酪 (P < 0.05), 相反可溶性氮 (SN) 的含量前者却明显高于后者 (P < 0.05) 。此外, 结果还显示用生姜蛋白酶为凝乳剂制备 Peshawari 奶酪可以明显改善主要的感官特性(外观、质构、风味) (P < 0.05), 更重要的是, 以这种方式生产的 Peshawari 奶酪没有苦味。这一研究表明生姜蛋白酶作为植物来源的凝乳剂在 Peshawari 奶酪生产中具有潜在应用价值。

关键词

Peshawari干酪 生姜蛋白酶 物化特性 微生物学 感官特性 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by 863 Program (2011AA100903), Ministry of Science and Technology, People’s Republic of China. Financial support to Malik Muhammad Hashim by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan is greatly appreciated.

References

  1. AOAC (1980) Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 13th edn. CRC, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA (1992) Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, 18th edn. American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbosa M, Corradini C, Battistoni B (1981) Cheesemaking experiments carried out on some Italian cheese with vegetable rennet from cardoon (Cynara cardunculus, L.). Sci Tec Latt Cas 32:203–221Google Scholar
  4. Christensen TMIE, Bech AM, Werner H (1991) Methods for crude fractionation (extraction and precipitation) of nitrogen components in cheese. IDF Bull 261:4–9Google Scholar
  5. Fernández-Salguero J, Tejada L, Gómez R (2002) Use of powdered vegetable coagulant in the manufacture of ewe’s milk cheeses. J Sci Food Agric 82:464–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fox PF (1999) Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology: Major Cheese Groups Volume 2. Aspen, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  7. Galán E, Prados F, Pino A, Tejada L, Fernández-Salguero J (2008) Influence of different amounts of vegetable coagulant from cardoon Cynara cardunculus and calf rennet on the proteolysis and sensory characteristics of cheeses made with sheep milk. Int Dairy J 18:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gómez R, Sanchez E, Vioque M, Ferreira J, Tejada L, Fernández-Salguero J (2001) Microbiological characteristics of ewe’s milk cheese manufactured using aqueous extracts of flowers from various species of cardoon Cynara L. Milchwissenschaft 56:16–19Google Scholar
  9. Hashim MM, Mingsheng D, Iqbal MF, Xiaohong C (2011) Ginger rhizome as a potential source of milk coagulating cysteine protease. Phytochemistry 72:458–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. IDF (1997) Sensory evaluation of dairy products by scoring. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, IDF Standard 99CGoogle Scholar
  11. Katsiari MC, Voutsinas LP (1994) Manufacture of low fat Kefalograviera cheese. Int Dairy J 4:533–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Naveena BM, Mendiratta SK, Anjaneyulu ASR (2004) Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Meat Sci 68:363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nuñez M, Fernandez del Pozo B, Rodriguez-Martin MA, Gaya P, Medina M (1991) Effect of vegetable and animal rennet on chemical, microbiological, rheological and sensory characteristics of La Serena cheese. J Dairy Res 58:511–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ohtsuki K, Taguchi K, Sato K, Kawabata M (1995) Purification of ginger proteases by DEAE-Sepharose and isoelectric focusing. Biochim Biophys Acta 1243:181–184Google Scholar
  15. O’Mahony JA, Sousa MJ, McSweeney PLH (2003) Proteolysis in miniature Cheddar-type cheeses made using blends of chymosin and Cynara cardunculus proteinases as coagulant. Int J Dairy Technol 56:234–242Google Scholar
  16. Pino A, Prados F, Galán E, McSweeney PLH, Fernández-Salguero J (2009) Proteolysis during the ripening of goat’s milk cheese made with plant coagulant or calf rennet. Food Res Int 42:324–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Prados A, Pino A, Fernández-Salguero J (2007) Effect of a powdered vegetable coagulant from cardoon Cynara cardunculus in the accelerated ripening of Manchego cheese. Int J Food Sci Technol 42:556–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sanjuán E, Millán R, Saavedra P, Carmona MA, Gómez R, Fernández-Salguero J (2002) Influence of animal and vegetable rennet on the physicochemical characteristics of Los Pedroches cheese during ripening. Food Chem 78:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sousa MJ, Malcata FX (1997) Comparison of plant and animal rennets in terms of microbiological, chemical, and proteolysis characteristics of ovine cheese. J Agric Food Chem 45:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tatini SR, Jezeski JJ, Morris HA, Olson JC, Casman EP (1971) Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in Cheddar and Colby cheese. J Dairy Sci 54:815–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tejada L, Abellán A, Cayuela JM, Martínez-Cacha A (2006) Sensorial characteristics during ripening of the Murcia al Vino goat’s milk cheese: The effect of the type of coagulant used and the size of the cheese. J Sens Stud 21:333–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tejada L, Abellán A, Prados F, Cayuela JM (2008) Compositional characteristics of Murcia al Vino goat’s cheese made with calf rennet and plant coagulant. Int J Dairy Technol 61:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tejada L, Fernández-Salguero J (2003) Chemical and microbiological characteristics of ewe milk cheese (Los Pedroches) made with a powdered vegetable coagulant or calf rennet. Ital J Food Sci 15:125–132Google Scholar
  24. Tejada L, Gómez R, Fernández-Salguero J (2007) Sensory characteristics of ewe milk cheese made with three types of coagulant: calf rennet, powdered vegetable coagulant and crude aqueous extract from Cynara cardunculus. J Food Qual 30:91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Visser FMW (1977) Contribution of enzymes from rennet, starter bacteria and milk to proteolysis and flavour development in Gouda cheese. 3. Protein breakdown: analysis of the soluble nitrogen and amino acid nitrogen fraction. Neth Milk Dairy J 31:210–239Google Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malik Muhammad Hashim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mingsheng Dong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Farooq Iqbal
    • 3
  • Wang Li
    • 1
  • Xiaohong Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Food Science and TechnologyNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyGomal UniversityDera Ismail KhanPakistan
  3. 3.Faculty of Veterinary and Animal SciencesArid Agricultural UniversityRawalpindiPakistan

Personalised recommendations