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Table 3 Single best generalised linear mixed models for (a) invertebrate abundance, (b) invertebrate family richness, (c) rare (< 10% occurrence) invertebrate abundance and (d) rare invertebrate family richness. dbRDA 1 and 2 are distance-based redundancy analysis axes, and PNCM2 is axis 2 from the principal coordinates of neighbour matrices to account for spatial autocorrelation.

From: Agri-environment schemes are associated with greater terrestrial invertebrate abundance and richness in upland grasslands

Model Distribution Explanatory variables β ± S.E Z p
(a) Invertebrate abundance Negative binomial
Management, conventional  − 0.304 ± 0.150  − 2.032 0.042
Habitat, semi-improved  − 0.239 ± 0.164  − 1.458 0.145
dbRDA2    0.066 ± 0.032     2.033 0.042
PCNM2  − 2.510 ± 0.488  − 5.149 < 0.001
Management*Habitat     0.363 ± 0.228     1.592 0.111
(b) Invertebrate family richness Poisson
Management, conventional  − 0.400 ± 0.116  − 3.451  < 0.001
Habitat, semi-improved  − 0.150 ± 0.120  − 1.254    0.210
dbRDA2     0.037 ± 0.026     1.440    0.150
PCNM2  − 1.169 ± 0.415  − 4.082  < 0.001
Management*Habitat     0.214 ± 0.169     1.268     0.205
(c) Rare invertebrate abundance Negative binomial
Management, conventional  − 0.839 ± 0.333  − 2.158 0.012
Habitat, semi-improved     0.056 ± 0.466    0.121 0.903
dbRDA1  − 0.056 ± 0.154  − 0.364 0.716
PCNM2  − 4.408 ± 1.242  − 3.548 < 0.001
Management*Habitat     0.296 ± 0.532    0.556 0.578
(d) Rare invertebrate family richness Poisson
Management, conventional  − 0.267 ± 0.132  − 2.030 0.042
Habitat, semi-improved  − 0.117 ± 0.134  − 0.874 0.382
dbRDA2     0.040 ± 0.028    1.456 0.145
PCNM2  − 1.527 ± 0.438  − 3.484 < 0.001
Management*Habitat     0.135 ± 0.192    0.700 0.484