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Boron nutrition of rice in different production systems. A review

  • Atique-ur-Rehman
  • Muhammad Farooq
  • Abdul Rashid
  • Faisal Nadeem
  • Sabine Stuerz
  • Folkard Asch
  • Richard W. Bell
  • Kadambot H. M. Siddique
Review Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Fertilisation

Abstract

Half of the world’s population—more than 3.5 billion people—depend on rice for more than 20% of their daily energy requirements. Rice productivity is under threat for several reasons, particularly the deficiency of micronutrients, such as boron (B). Most rice-based cropping systems, including rice–wheat, are facing B deficiency as they are often practiced on high pH and alkaline soils with low B contents, low soil organic matter, and inadequate use of B fertilizer, which restricts the availability, uptake, and deposition of B into grains. Farmers’ reluctance to fertilize rice fields with B—due to the lack of cost-effective B-enriched macronutrient fertilizers—further exacerbates B deficiency in rice-based cropping systems. Here we review that, (i) while rice can tolerate excess B, its deficiency induces nutritional disorders, limits rice productivity, impairs grain quality, and affects the long-term sustainability of rice production systems. (ii) As B dynamics in the soil varies between flooded and aerobic rice systems, different B deficiency management strategies are needed in rice-based cropping systems. (iii) Correct diagnosis of B deficiency/toxicity in rice; understanding its interaction with other nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium; and the availability and application of B fertilizers using effective methods will help to improve the sustainability and productivity of different rice production systems. (iv) Research on rice-based systems should focus on breeding approaches, including marker-assisted selection and wide hybridization (incorporation of desirable genes), and biotechnological strategies, such as next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, and genetic transformations to develop rice genotypes with improved B contents and abilities to acquire B from the soil. (v) Different B application strategies—seed priming and foliar and/or soil application—should be included to improve the performance of rice, particularly when grown under aerobic conditions.

Keywords

Boron Breeding Molecular biology Plant physiology Rice-based production systems 

Notes

Funding information

Financial support provided by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the study is highly acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AgronomyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine SciencesSultan Qaboos UniversityAl-KhoudOman
  4. 4.Institute of Agricultural Sciences in the TropicsUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  5. 5.The UWA Institute of Agriculture and School of Agriculture and EnvironmentThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  6. 6.Pakistan Academy of SciencesIslamabadPakistan
  7. 7.School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia

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