Advertisement

Silicon enhancement of estimated plant biomass carbon accumulation under abiotic and biotic stresses. A meta-analysis

  • Zichuan Li
  • Zhaoliang SongEmail author
  • Zhifeng Yan
  • Qian Hao
  • Alin Song
  • Linan Liu
  • Xiaomin Yang
  • Shaopan Xia
  • Yongchao LiangEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Abiotic and biotic stresses are the major factors limiting plant growth worldwide. Plants exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses often cause reduction in plant biomass as well as crop yield, resulting in plant biomass carbon loss. As a beneficial and quasi-essential element, silicon accumulation in rhizosphere and plants can alleviate the unfavorable effects of the major forms of abiotic and biotic stress through several resistance mechanisms and thus increases plant biomass accumulation and crop yield. The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and crop yield have been widely reviewed over the last years. However, carbon accumulation of silicon-associated plant biomass under abiotic and biotic stresses has not yet been systematically addressed. This review article focuses on both the main mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic and biotic stresses and their effects on plant biomass carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. The major points are the following: (1) the recovery of plant biomass via silicon mediation usually exhibits a bell-shaped response curve to abiotic stress severity and an S-shaped response curve to biotic stress severity; (2) although carbon concentration of plant biomass decreases with silicon accumulation, more than 96% of the recovered plant biomass contributes to plant biomass carbon accumulation; (3) silicon-mediated recovery generally increases plant biomass carbon by 35% and crop yield by 24%. In conclusion, silicon can improve plant growth and enhance plant biomass carbon accumulation under abiotic and biotic stresses in terrestrial ecosystems.

Keywords

Abiotic stresses Biotic stresses Carbon accumulation Plant biomass restoration Silicon 
Contents
  1. 1

    Introduction

     
  2. 2
    Materials and methods
    • 2.1 Data compilation

    • 2.2 Data calculation

    • 2.3 Data analysis

     
  3. 3
    Plant biomass carbon accumulation under abiotic and biotic stresses
    • 3.1 Abiotic stresses

    • 3.2 Biotic stresses

     
  4. 4
    Silicon distribution in plants and its alleviation of stresses
    • 4.1 Silicon distribution and accumulation in plants

    • 4.2 Silicon alleviation of abiotic stresses

    • 4.3 Silicon regulation of biotic stresses

     
  5. 5
    Silicon enhancement of plant biomass carbon accumulation under stresses
    • 5.1 Silicon enhancement of carbon accumulation under abiotic stresses

    • 5.2 Silicon enhancement of carbon accumulation under biotic stresses

     
  6. 6

    Implications for the management of terrestrial ecosystems

     
  7. 7

    Conclusions and perspectives

     

Acknowledgements

References

1 Introduction

Abiotic and biotic stresses are the important factors limiting plant growth and crop yield worldwide. The drought and salt stresses are the two major abiotic stress factors that restrict plant growth and productivity (Cramer et al. 2011; Zhu 2016), while pathogen infection and animal grazing are the two major biotic stress factors that cause plant injuries and biomass losses (Massey et al. 2007; Dow et al. 2017). The area subject to meteorological drought constitutes about 21% of the earth’s land area, with nearly 13% under moderate to severe conditions (Prudhomme et al. 2014; Damberg and AghaKouchak 2014), whereas the area suffering from soil salinization accounts for approximately 7% of the global land area and 20% of the total cropland area (Rasool et al. 2013). Other forms of abiotic stress, such as soil acidification (Sumner and Noble 2003), heavy metal contamination (Adrees et al. 2015), UV radiation (Jansen and van den Noort 2000), extreme temperature (Levitt 1980), and nutrient imbalance (Huber et al. 2012), also have negative effects on plant growth. Among the biotic stresses, fungal pathogen contributes to 70–80% of plant diseases (Ray et al. 2017), while bacterial or viral pathogens usually have a long latent period and cause fatal plant injuries (García and Pallás 2015; Kim et al. 2016). Insect infestation and herbivore grazing often lead to tissue losses, which are more costly to renovate for slow-growing plant species (Massey et al. 2007). The negative effects of abiotic and biotic stresses have been reported to reduce crop yield and plant biomass carbon through restraining plant photosynthesis and biomass accumulation (Eneji et al. 2008; Nicol et al. 2011). Additionally, climatic and environmental changes may cause more severe and frequent occurrences of abiotic and biotic stresses in the future.

Traditional measures to alleviate abiotic and biotic stresses may have some negative environmental and ecological effects (e.g., pesticide residues). Alternatively, many studies have demonstrated that silicon (Si) accumulation in plants can increase the adaptive capacity of plants under abiotic and biotic stresses (Tuna et al. 2008; Kim et al. 2014; Kang et al. 2016; Song et al. 2016) (Fig. 1). Silicon that is tightly bound to the cell walls is naturally present as a structural material in relation to enhancement of cell wall rigidity and elasticity (Weiss and Herzog 1978; He et al. 2013). When monosilicic acid concentration is high in the xylem sap, it becomes an important osmolyte improving plant osmotic and water potentials (Casey et al. 2004; Mitani et al. 2005; Yin et al. 2013). In addition, Si requires relatively less energy than the biomolecules such as lignin and proline with regard to structural material and osmolyte (Raven 2001; Broadley et al. 2012). Therefore, Si can improve the homeostasis of plant resistance to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses in terrestrial ecosystems at a low cost.
Fig. 1.

Beneficial effect of Si application to rice growth under salt stress (a) and common Si-accumulating crops: rice (b), cucumber (c), and wheat (d). In sub-figure (a), Si-0, Si-5, Si-10, and Si-20 denote 0, 5, 10, and 20 g Si fertilizer per pot, respectively

Important literature has reported that Si application can promote plant growth, biomass accumulation, and crop yield under various abiotic (Liang et al. 2007; Cooke and Leishman 2016; Rios et al. 2017) and biotic (Hartley and DeGabriel 2016; Luyckx et al. 2017; Wang et al. 2017) stresses. Recently, researches on molecular mechanisms of Si uptake, transport, and accumulation in plants have achieved a critical milestone in molecular evolution of aquaporins (Deshmukh et al. 2015; Yamaji et al. 2015; Vivancos et al. 2016). However, the linkage between the mechanism of Si-mediated alleviation and the effect of Si on plant biomass carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems has not yet been clarified accurately. Different from other reviews focusing on the mechanisms of Si-mediated resistance to various stresses (Guntzer et al. 2012; Zhu and Gong 2014; Rizwan et al. 2015; Imtiaz et al. 2016), this review summarizes and discusses the mechanisms on how Si improves plant biomass carbon accumulation under abiotic and biotic stresses. First, we introduce the negative effects of various stresses on plant biomass carbon accumulation as abiotic and biotic stresses severely suppress plant growth. Second, we make the connection between the physiological mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation under different stresses and the factors controlling Si enhancement of plant biomass carbon accumulation. Third, we discuss the role of Si in enhancing aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and plant biomass carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. Finally, we discuss the potential of Si in enhancing plant biomass carbon accumulation for future investigation at the ecosystem scale.

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Data compilation

Data on Si-mediated recovery of plant biomass and crop yield under abiotic and biotic stresses were collected from peer-reviewed publications. In order to avoid publication bias, the following keywords were employed to search the Web of Science: silicon, abiotic stresses (i.e., drought stress, salt stress, UV-B radiation, nutritional imbalance, and heavy metal toxicities), and biotic stresses (i.e., bacterial blight, brown spot, stalk borer, and neck blast). In addition, the following two criteria were used to select literatures for analysis:
  1. 1.

    Plant biomass was provided or could be calculated based on dry weight of leaf, grain, stalk, and root;

     
  2. 2.

    Crop yields were provided.

     

Plant biomass included aboveground biomass only or was comprised of below- and aboveground biomass. In total, 41 papers dealing with plant biomass and 12 papers dealing with crop yield were selected in our synthesis. The original data of plant growth with and without Si application under various stress conditions were extracted from reported tables or graphs using GetData Graph Digitizer (Version 2.22, Russian Federation).

2.2 Data calculation

Because the control treatment of Si application usually displays enhancement of plant biomass accumulation as well, in order to preclude the Si fertilization effect, plant biomass increment (PBI) mediated by Si application under both abiotic and biotic stresses was calculated using Eq. (1).
$$ \mathrm{PBI}\ \left(\%\right)=\frac{{\mathrm{BS}}_{+\mathrm{Si}}/{\mathrm{BS}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}-{\mathrm{BC}}_{+\mathrm{Si}}/{\mathrm{BC}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}}{{\mathrm{BC}}_{+\mathrm{Si}}/{\mathrm{BC}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}}\times 100 $$
(1)
where BS is the plant biomass under stressful condition, BC is the plant biomass of the control, and the subscripts of “−Si” and “+Si” are experimental treatment without and with Si application, respectively. For the studies without Si application to the control, the plant biomass increment was calculated using Eq. (2).
$$ \mathrm{PBI}\ \left(\%\right)=\frac{{\mathrm{BS}}_{+\mathrm{Si}}-{\mathrm{BS}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}}{{\mathrm{BS}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}}\times 100 $$
(2)
Besides, Si-mediated plant recovery from stressful conditions usually accompanies with increasing Si concentration and decreasing carbon concentration in plant biomass. Hence, plant biomass carbon increment (BCI) was calculated using Eq. (3).
$$ \mathrm{BCI}\ \left(\%\right)=\mathrm{PBI}\times {\mathrm{DC}}_f $$
(3)
where DCf is the coefficient of biomass carbon decreasing with Si accumulation in plant biomass. Until now, the largest Si content increase, which was induced by Si addition, was 3.96% by weight in rice leaf (Detmann et al. 2012). Thus, we concluded that Si application to alleviate multiple abiotic and biotic stresses increases no more than 4% of Si in plant biomass by weight. Besides, 1% of Si increase in plant biomass generally induces less than 1% plant biomass carbon reduction (Klotzbücher et al. 2018; Neu et al. 2017). Therefore, 0.96 was set as the coefficient in this study for estimating plant biomass carbon increment that is mediated by Si application under stressful conditions.
Similar to data calculation of plant biomass increment, crop yield increment (CYI) was calculated using Eq. (4) to exclude the Si fertilization effect.
$$ \mathrm{CYI}\ \left(\%\right)=\frac{{\mathrm{YS}}_{+\mathrm{Si}}/{\mathrm{YS}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}-{\mathrm{YC}}_{+\mathrm{Si}}/{\mathrm{YC}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}}{{\mathrm{YC}}_{+\mathrm{Si}}/{\mathrm{YC}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}}\times 100 $$
(4)
where YS is the crop yield under stressful condition, BC is the crop yield of the control, and the subscripts of “−Si” and “+Si” are experimental treatment without and with Si application, respectively. For the studies without Si application to the control, the crop yield increment was calculated using Eq. (5).
$$ \mathrm{CYI}\ \left(\%\right)=\frac{{\mathrm{YS}}_{+\mathrm{Si}}-{\mathrm{YS}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}}{{\mathrm{YS}}_{-\mathrm{Si}}}\times 100 $$
(5)

2.3 Data analysis

All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (IBM, version 23.0). Graph was drawn using Origin Software (OriginLab Corp., Version 9.0).

3 Plant biomass carbon accumulation under abiotic and biotic stresses

3.1 Abiotic stresses

Plants suffer from physiological stresses when exposed to abnormal environments such as extreme temperatures, drought, high salinity, heavy metals, and nutrient imbalance (Genga et al. 2011; Savvides et al. 2016). Hyperosmotic stress, cell dehydration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, and leaf chlorosis are the main responses to such stresses (Table 1). In addition, plants endure secondary stresses when several abiotic stresses interplay. For example, interconnections between drought stress and salt stress may lead to nutritional deficiency and hyperosmotic stress, while Ca, B, Zn, and K deficiencies often increase the incidences of plant disease and insect attack (Huber et al. 2012; Zhu and Gong 2014). By contrast, low N availability caused by drought and salt stresses may enhance plant resistance to pest attacks (Huber et al. 2012). Plants have developed highly complicated strategies to efficiently acclimatize themselves to the adverse conditions (Zhu 2016). Network relationships between biological damages and abiotic stresses indicate that systemic acquired resistance of plants can alleviate most abiotic and biotic stresses.
Table 1

Effects of various abiotic and biotic stresses on plant growth

Environmental factor

Secondary stress

Damage

References

Abiotic stress

Drought

Nutrient deficiency, oxidative and osmotic stresses

Nutrient uptake limit, ROS damage, cell dehydration, and photosynthetic decline

Farooq et al. (2009); Zhu and Gong (2014)

Salinity

Nutrient deficiency, oxidative, drought and osmotic stresses

Disturbance of nutrient uptake, ROS damage, ion toxicity, water deficit, hyperosmotic potential, cell dehydration, and photosynthetic decline

Zhu and Gong (2014); Zhu (2016)

Toxic metals

Nutrient deficiency, oxidative and osmotic stresses

Disturbance of nutrient uptake, ROS damage, cell membrane dysfunction, leaf chlorosis, and abnormal root morphology

Nagajyoti et al. (2010); Imtiaz et al. (2016)

Nutrient imbalance

 A. Nutrient deficiency

 B. Nutrient excess

Pathogen infection and oxidative stress

A: increased membrane permeability, impair polymer synthesis, ROS damage, and leaf chlorosis

B: over-luxuriant growth and poor haulm stability

Pham et al. (2004); Ma and Yamaji (2006); Huber et al. (2012)

Radiation

 A. UV-radiation

 B. Excessive light

Oxidative and osmotic stresses, heat and drought stresses

A: ROS damage, stomatal closure, leaf bronzing and curling, impair photosynthesis

B: midday depression and wilting

Jansen and van den Noort (2000); Cramer et al. (2011); Shen et al. (2010a)

Extreme temperature

 A. Heat

 B. Chilling

Oxidative and osmotic stresses, and/or drought stress

A: ROS damage, water deficit, photosynthetic decline, protein denaturation and aggregation

B: cell dehydration, extracellular ice crystals, membrane damages and hyperosmotic potential

Levitt (1980); Hasanuzzaman et al. (2013); Savvides et al. (2016); Zhu (2016)

Crop lodging

Blocked photosynthesis

Harvest difficulty and productivity reduction

Pham et al. (2004); Wu et al. (2012)

Biotic stress

Fungal disease

Oxidative and wilting stresses

Localized necrosis, eyespot lesions, leaf spot, plugging of the vessels, dieback, and root rot

Gostinčar et al. (2011); Goyal and Manoharachary (2014); Lehmann et al. (2015); Ray et al. (2017)

Bacterial disease

Oxidative and drought stresses

Leaf and stem blight, bacterial canker, vascular wilt, soft rot, bacterial scabs and galls

Diogo and Wydra (2007); Kim et al. (2016); Dow et al. (2017)

Viral disease

Oxidative stress

Leaf chlorosis, wrinkling or curling of leaf margin

Narayanasamy (2011); García and Pallás (2015); Pearson (2017)

Pest damage

Oxidative and drought stresses

Insect grazing, wilting induced by root-knot and cyst, root, stems or foliar lesions and plant death

Gilioli et al. (2014); Douma et al. (2016); Johnson et al. (2016)

Herbivore injury

Wound-induced stress

Herbivore grazing and leaf lesion

Massey et al. (2007); Gong and Zhang (2014); Katz (2015)

Although plants can mediate the intrinsic defense networks to mitigate the damages caused by adverse habitats, most of them have to pay a tradeoff between extra-consumption of resources for homeostasis and plant growth. Equal proportions of plant biomass and biomass carbon are lost from abiotic stresses compared with non-stressful conditions due to almost the same carbon concentration of the harvested dry matter under stressful and non-stressful conditions. Pot experiments show that the biomass of maize (Zea mays) and broomcorn (Sorghum bicolor) decreased by 49 and 79% under drought stress, respectively (Hattori et al. 2005; Kaya et al. 2006). The biomass of pea (Pisum sativum) decreased by 38% under 100 μM chromium (VI) stresses, as compared to biomass reduction of 5 and 64% in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedling exposed to 5 and 25 μM cadmium stress, respectively, and that of 33% under UV-B stress (Tripathi et al. 2015, 2017; Wu et al. 2016a). Additionally, abiotic stresses caused by extreme weather and climate may result in plant growth arrest and even death, resulting in inefficient carbon assimilation and ANPP in terrestrial ecosystems (Kogan et al. 2004; Craine et al. 2012). In summary, plant exposure to abiotic stresses usually reduces plant biomass and crop yield, resulting in plant biomass carbon loss.

3.2 Biotic stresses

Herbivory, pathogen, and pest attacks are the main biotic stresses that plants need to cope with during their lifecycles (Table 1). The major determinants of plant disease and pest incidences include plant species (Massey et al. 2007), habitat (Massey et al. 2007), nutrient status, and the degree of overlap between the susceptible growth stages of the host plants and the reactive pathogens and pests (Walters and Bingham 2007; Huber et al. 2012). The renovation of injured tissues of slow-growing plant species is more costly in resource-limited environments than that of fast-growing plant species in resource-rich environments (Massey et al. 2007). Furthermore, the complexity of these responses is significantly affected by the extent and duration of biotic stresses (both acute and chronic) (Cramer et al. 2011), which leads to different impacts on plant growth and biomass carbon accumulation. In summary, the investment in defensive strategies among plant species to resist or tolerate these biotic stresses is usually associated with plant growth rates and their habitats.

Plant physiological responses often have double-edged effects when they are used to counteract various biotic stresses. For example, the bilateral functions of ROS induced by various environmental stresses not only cause damage to plants but also act as signaling transducer and cause programmed cell death in response to fungal attack (Schieber and Chandel 2014; Demidchik 2015; Lehmann et al. 2015). Furthermore, Si coupling with Mn accumulation in the infected region may lead to increased biosynthesis of phenolics and phytoalexins, which are catalyzed by Mn-containing enzymes (Huber et al. 2012). In addition, many facultative and obligate parasites may increase the risk of disease outbreak, especially when the concentrations of sugars and amino acids in the apoplasms of the leaves increase due to nutrient imbalances such as insufficient Ca, B, Zn, and K and excess N (Walters and Bingham 2007; Huber et al. 2012). These results indicate that plant nutrient status plays an important role in counteracting the negative effects of biotic stresses on plant growth and biomass accumulation.

The effects of biotic stresses have two different patterns, i.e., pathogen infection and grazing, on suppression of plant growth and biomass accumulation (Table 1). Plants suffering from pathogen infection often undergo lower photosynthetic capacity and carbon assimilation due to leaf necrosis and vascular wilt. A pot experiment shows that rice (Oryza sativa) infected with leaf blight decreased by 55% of biomass on average (Song et al. 2016). In contrast, insect and herbivore grazing has an immediate biomass loss and the ANPP is regulated by the grazing intensity (Schönbach et al. 2010; Irisarri et al. 2016). In addition, extra-consumption of resources for systemic acquired resistance and homeostasis has negative effects on plant photosynthesis and carbon assimilation as well. In conclusion, plant biomass reduction caused by pathogen infection and herbivore damage usually generates potential loss of biomass carbon in terrestrial ecosystems.

4 Silicon distribution in plants and its alleviation of stresses

4.1 Silicon distribution and accumulation in plants

Silicon is the second most abundant element and constitutes 28.8% of the Earth’s crust (Epstein 1999). The Si content in soils ranges widely from less than 1% in histosols to 45% in the very old podzols (Skjemstad et al. 1992; Sommer et al. 2006). In the soil matrix, primary silicate mineral, secondary clay mineral, and amorphous silica account for most of the total Si pool, but they are relatively insoluble and biogeochemically inert (Savant et al. 1997; Sommer et al. 2006). Plant-available Si is primarily released from the recycling of biogenic Si pools and partly derived from the geochemical cycling of mineral Si pools (Bartoli 1985; Alexandre et al. 1997; Tubaña and Heckman 2015; Cornelis and Delvaux 2016). In the plant–soil system, successive Si influx and efflux transporters in plants regulate Si uptake and transport from the solution in vitro to the terminals of the transpiration stream (Ma and Yamaji 2006). Monosilicic acid movement from soil solution to the exodermis and endodermis root cells passes through an influx channel-type transporter (Lsi1) via the passive transport (Ma and Yamaji 2015). Then, an active Si efflux transporter (Lsi2) facilitates Si loading from the endodermis root cells to the xylem (Yamaji et al. 2015). In rice xylem sap, the concentration of monosilicic acid can reach up to 20 mM, while silicic acid in vitro polymerizes into silica gel when its concentration exceeds 2 mM (Mitani et al. 2005). Monosilicic acid unloads from the xylem into leaf cells via another Si influx transporter (Lsi6) as similar to Lsi1, but its localization is in the xylem transfer cell layer (Ma and Yamaji 2015). In addition, another Si efflux transporter (Lsi3) localized at rice node in cooperation with Lsi2 and Lsi6 reloads Si to the xylem of diffuse vascular bundle and facilitates Si unloading to the panicle (Yamaji et al. 2015). Finally, more than 90% of Si in plants is distributed in the shoots and most of it is deposited in the leaf sheaths and leaf blades (Broadley et al. 2012). In summary, the ability of plants to absorb Si is regulated by the cooperative system of Si influx and efflux transporters in plant.

Increasing evidence suggested that the ability of Si accumulation in different plant species demonstrates a direct correlation between Si transporter genes (NIP2s) and Lsi2s (Deshmukh et al. 2015; Deshmukh and Bélanger 2016; Vivancos et al. 2016). However, homologous genes of Si transporters in different plant species do not show the same Si uptake and transport patterns due to diverse root and shoot architectures (Deshmukh and Bélanger 2016). In principle, all monocots (e.g., sugarcane, rice, and most cereals) and a few dicots (e.g., sunflower, soybean, and cucumber) are defined as high Si-accumulating plants (> 1% dry weight) and acquire positive effects from Si application (Ma et al. 2001; Liang et al. 2005a; Deshmukh and Bélanger 2016). By contrast, most dicots (e.g., tomato) taking up small amounts of Si (< 0.1% dry weight) are defined as low Si-accumulating plants. The dicots accumulating Si ranging from 0.1 to 1% of Si belong to the intermediate Si accumulator category (Guntzer et al. 2012; Deshmukh and Bélanger 2016). In addition, systematical benefits of Si conferred to plants depend on the ability of Si adsorption among different plant species (Ma and Yamaji 2006; Deshmukh and Bélanger 2016). Hence, Si-accumulating plants are more sensitive to Si feeding than intermediate and low Si-accumulating plants.

4.2 Silicon alleviation of abiotic stresses

Silicon in the soil solution is transported to the rhizosphere as monosilicic acid (H4SiO4) by belowground transpiration streams. Soluble Fe/Al–O–Si complexes may also be transferred to the root zones and activated by root exudates (Pokrovski et al. 2003; Hobara et al. 2016; Wu et al. 2016b). The accumulation of monosilicic acid in the rhizosphere and the formation of iron plaques on the root absorbency area play important roles in preventing the entrance of heavy metals into plant roots (Liang et al. 2005b; Wu et al. 2016b). Co-precipitation of toxic cationic metals with plant-available Si and adsorption of toxic anionic metals on the iron plaques are the major mechanisms for Si to mediate the alleviation of heavy metal toxicity in soils (Liang et al. 2005b; Gu et al. 2011; Adrees et al. 2015; Wu et al. 2016b). In addition, Si deposition in the roots is the primary inhibitory effect on apolasmic transport of Na+ across the roots (Gong et al. 2006), while monosilicic acid competition with arsenite can reduce plant arsenic uptake under anaerobic conditions (Ma et al. 2008; Tripathi et al. 2013; Marmiroli et al. 2014; Tripathi et al. 2016a). Furthermore, Si-mediated alleviation of heavy metal toxicity also occurs in root cells and xylem vessels (Liang et al. 2007; Lukačová et al. 2013; Ma et al. 2014). The activated Si in the rhizosphere, root systems, and xylem vessels inactivates the detrimental substances in vitro and in vivo (Fig. 2) and prevents them from entering plant shoots. For nutrient uptake, Si application elevates the harvest index and nitrogen use efficiency (Detmann et al. 2012; Song et al. 2017). More plant-available Si can suppress excessive phosphorus uptake in rice (Ma and Takahashi 1990) but promote phosphorus uptake under phosphorus deficiency stress (Ma et al. 2001; Pontigo et al. 2015; Kostic et al. 2017). Increasing Si application can mediate potassium accumulation in shoots when plants are subject to salt stress and potassium deficiency (Wang and Han 2007; Chen et al. 2015). In addition, Si can alleviate iron deficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and soybean (Glycine max), although this effect is plant-specific and dose-dependent (Gonzalo et al. 2013; Pavlovic et al. 2013). However, the effects of Si on manganese and zinc are not clear (Hernandez-Apaolaza 2014). In general, Si imposes positive effects on regulation of plant nutrition uptake.
Fig. 2.

Principal mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic and biotic stresses on plant growth and development

Considerable amounts of Si that are deposited in the cell walls of plant roots and xylem vessels can withstand crop lodging through strengthening the mechanical property of plant roots and the haulms (Balasta et al. 1989; Hattori et al. 2003; Ma and Yamaji 2006). More than 90% Si absorbed by plant roots is transferred into shoots via the xylem (Ma and Takahashi 2002). High concentrations of monosilicic acid in the xylem and leaves can improve the osmotic potential of epidermis cells and increase the leaf water potential against plant evapotranspiration (Mitani et al. 2005; Pei et al. 2010; Chen et al. 2011; Ming et al. 2012). Silicon deposition beneath the cuticle of the epidermal cells and the inflorescence bracts reduces the leaf and panicle transpiration, stretches the leaf blade, and promotes photosynthetic efficiency (Hattori et al. 2008; Ma and Yamaji 2006, 2008; Tripathi et al. 2016b). Overall, these beneficial effects of Si on plant water retention have been shown to improve plant tolerance to drought, salt, extreme temperature, and excessive light stresses (Kaya et al. 2006; Liang et al. 2008; Ming et al. 2012; Tuna et al. 2008; Soundararajan et al. 2014; Shen et al. 2010a; Guntzer et al. 2012; Zhu and Gong 2014) (Fig. 2). In addition, Si application can improve plant water use efficiency and increase photosynthesis pigment as well as net assimilation rate under multiple abiotic stresses (Shen et al. 2010b; Chen et al. 2011; Shi et al. 2013). In summary, Si-mediated changes to osmotic potential and the physical barrier can help regulate plant transpiration and improve water use efficiency.

The alleviation of oxidative stress caused by silicon accumulation in plants (Shen et al. 2010a; Zhu et al. 2016) may decrease the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes that are involved in lignin, phenolics, and phytoalexin biosynthesis (Ortega et al. 2006; Huber et al. 2012; Schaller et al. 2012). For example, lignin content in canola decreases when Si is applied as a fertilizer and increases as Si is deficient (Hashemi et al. 2010; Suzuki et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2013s). Application of Si can decrease the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) without complete relation to goal-oriented ROS-scavenging enzyme activities (Shen et al. 2010a; Zhang et al. 2013; Coskun et al. 2016), indicating indirect effects of Si on biosynthesis of antioxidant enzyme (Fig. 3). Hence, we speculate that Si accumulation in plants promotes tolerance of plants to the adverse effect of various abiotic stresses, which decreases the effects of oxidative stress as well as ROS production and reduces ROS-dependent signal transduction as well as biosynthesis of antioxidant enzyme (Schieber and Chandel 2014; Zhu et al. 2016). Furthermore, based on systemic-acquired acclimation, we also suggest that the effects of Si-mediated alleviation of the archetypal defense hormones can be derived from the improvement of physiological conditions rather than from the regulation of Si on the pathways of plant hormones (Kim et al. 2014; Rizwan et al. 2015) (Fig. 3). Until now, no direct evidence has shown the existence of Si-involved signaling pathway in plants. Therefore, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytohormone levels independent of Si concentration are probably the result of Si-mediated alleviation instead of Si itself. In conclusion, the down-regulated responses of antioxidant defenses and hormone immunity are probably attributed to Si-mediated improvements in plant homeostasis.
Fig. 3.

Possible pathways of Si-mediated alleviation of phytohormone defense systems and antioxidant defense systems. SA, salicylic acid; JA, jasmonic acid; ET, ethylene; ABA, abscisic acid. The figure depicts that the stress hormone response and antioxidant system may be regulated by post-feedback of Si-mediated alleviation rather than forward feedback of Si-associated signaling pathway

4.3 Silicon regulation of biotic stresses

The deposition of Si in the cell walls of roots improves the biomechanical properties of plants (Hansen et al. 1976) and thus increases root resistance to soil-borne diseases and pests (Johnson et al. 2010). The appearance of root-specific phytoliths in the roots and tubers shows that Si also participates in protecting belowground tissues from soil-borne pests (Lux et al. 2003; Chandler-Ezell et al. 2006). Plant transpiration leads to the accumulation of over 90% Si in the shoots where the Si is used as the structural materials for the cuticle–silica double layer and silicified cells (Hodson and Sangster 1989; Ma and Takahashi 2002; Huber et al. 2012). The cuticle–silica double layer often serves as a physical barrier that impedes the penetration of fungus and pest (Ma and Yamaji 2006). Silica cell/bodies in grasses can result in rough taste to insect pests and herbivores (Hartley and DeGabriel 2016) (Fig. 2). Furthermore, it is the symplastic Si, rather than the apoplastic Si, that seems to inhibit the spread of Pythium aphanidermatum in tomato plant roots (Heine et al. 2007). The osmotic effect of soluble Si (Liang et al. 2005c; Liang et al. 2015) and the Si-associated biosynthesis of phytoalexins (Ghanmi et al. 2004) enhance the resistance of host plants to pathogen infection. This may be related to the symplastic Si (Fig. 3), which may act as a modulator that influences the timing and extension of the systemic acquired resistance (Liang et al. 2015) through the long-distance electrical and hydraulic signals. However, the interaction between the symplastic Si and systemic acquired resistance is not clear. The effects of Si-mediated plant osmotic and water potential on electrical and hydraulic signals under biotic stresses need to be further investigated.

Silicon accumulated around the attempted infection sites is three to four times higher than that around the successful penetration sites (Heath and Stumpf 1986; Carver et al. 1987). Manganese accumulation that accompanies Si at the infection sites may be related to Si-mediated biosynthesis of phenolics and phytoalexins to resist pathogen infection (Menzies et al. 1991; Huber et al. 2012). Furthermore, plant diseases and pests induced by nutrient deficiencies and ion imbalances would be alleviated by Si-mediated nutrient uptake and distribution (Pavlovic et al. 2013; Gonzalo et al. 2013; Hernandez-Apaolaza 2014; Chen et al. 2015). Therefore, Si accumulation in plant tissues may increase the resistance to nutrient deficiency-induced diseases and pests by alleviating micronutrient deficiencies in plants. Besides, the cuticle–silica double layer and silica cell/bodies do not account for all the preventive effects because soluble Si in plant tissues is also involved in prophylactic alleviation of the detrimental impact of many biotic stresses (Liang et al. 2015). These studies show that Si deposition in leaves and silica cell/bodies postpones protection from pathogen and insect pest attack, while soluble Si in plant tissues plays a real-time role in plant resistance.

Classic hormone defense pathways have little correlation with Si-mediated plant resistance to various biotic stresses (Van Bockhaven et al. 2015; Vivancos et al. 2015). The downregulated archetypal defense hormones such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid are not derived from the Si-mediated mechanism related to plant disease resistance (Van Bockhaven et al. 2015; Vivancos et al. 2015). At present, only the ethylene pathway of rice against the brown spot fungus has been testified (Van Bockhaven et al. 2015). Silicon-induced changes in plant enzymatic or non-enzymatic defense systems that counteract ROS overproduction (Debona et al. 2014; Nascimento et al. 2016) may also result from Si-mediated alleviation of various biotic stresses (Fig. 3). In summary, increasing Si in plant tissues could reduce the metabolic costs of systemic acquired acclimation for adapting to multiple biotic stresses.

5 Silicon enhancement of plant biomass carbon accumulation under stresses

5.1 Silicon enhancement of carbon accumulation under abiotic stresses

Silicon supply has beneficial effects on plant biomass carbon accumulation under multiple abiotic stresses (Hattori et al. 2005; Liang et al. 2005b; Fu et al. 2012; Mateos-Naranjo et al. 2015). Compared with plant biomass carbon loss caused by multiple abiotic stresses, Si-mediated plant biomass carbon recovery rarely reaches the biomass carbon accumulation under non-stress condition. Compared to the control, wheat plants lose their biomass carbon by 32 and 44% under salinity stress and 25 and 16% in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive Si-fed plants, respectively (Tuna et al. 2008). The stress-sensitive plants would receive more biomass carbon accumulation than the stress-tolerant ones as well as when Si is added under drought stress and heavy metal toxicity (Kaya et al. 2006; Farooq et al. 2013; Wu et al. 2016a). In addition, increasing Si application (monosilicic acid in soil solution at pH below 9.0 is less than 2 mM) can improve the performance of plant biomass carbon accumulation (Kaya et al. 2006; Tuna et al. 2008; Pei et al. 2010). However, the performance of Si application to alleviate cadmium toxicity in wheat increases with stress severity in moderate stress conditions but decreases in both mild stress and severe stress conditions (Farooq et al. 2013; Wu et al. 2016a). The results suggest that Si-mediated biomass carbon accumulation probably displays progressive increase from mild to moderate stress but turns into declination under severe stress conditions. In summary, the recovery performances of plant biomass carbon induced by Si-modulated mitigation have different responses to plant cultivars, Si application dosage, and abiotic stress intensity. Therefore, we propose that the efficiency of Si-mediated alleviation responses to the severity gradients of abiotic stresses will probably display a bell-shaped curve (Fig. 4(a)). Accordingly, the input–output ratio between Si fertilization and the restoration performance of plant biomass carbon should be fully scrutinized.
Fig. 4.

Potential of plant biomass enhanced by additional silicon supply under different abiotic (a) and biotic (b) stress degrees. The hypotheses we proposed illustrate that the performances of plant biomass recovery from Si-mediated alleviation are stress degree-dependent for abiotic stress and stress degree-independent for biotic stress

In addition, most studies have reported that Si application to alleviate many abiotic stresses can enhance the expression of key genes related to photosynthesis, increase photosynthetic pigments, and promote plant photosynthesis as well as net assimilation rate (Shen et al. 2010b; Chen et al. 2011; Shi et al. 2013; Song et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015a; Kang et al. 2016). As a result, Si-mediated recovery from multiple abiotic stresses can stimulate CO2 assimilation in plants and biomass carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. Furthermore, Si application to grassland can enhance ANPP and maintain biodiversity of grassland under high nitrogen fertilizer (Xu et al. 2015). Specifically, the mass proportion of the increased Si ranges from 0.02 to 3.96% of the recovered plant biomass (Detmann et al. 2012; Kurabachew and Wydra 2014), while 1% of Si increase in rice and wheat reduces plant biomass carbon by 0.87 and 0.57%, respectively (Klotzbücher et al. 2018; Neu et al. 2017). It suggests that an increase in the Si content of plant by 1% may reduce the plant biomass carbon by less than 1%. Therefore, although carbon concentration of plant biomass decreases with silicon accumulation, more than 96% of the recovered plant biomass contributes to plant biomass carbon accumulation. In conclusion, Si cycling improves carbon accumulation through abiotic stress mitigation in terrestrial ecosystems.

5.2 Silicon enhancement of carbon accumulation under biotic stresses

Plant growth and biomass accumulation often respond differently to herbivores, insect pests, and diseases due to multifarious attack patterns (Table 1). Therefore, the response mechanisms of Si-modulated alleviation may depend on the biotic stresses the plant is subject to (Etesami and Jeong 2018). Silicon-modulated prevention of biotic stresses is the major effect of Si-associated ecological functions (Soininen et al. 2013; Hartley and DeGabriel 2016). The effect of Si-mediated alleviation on various biotic stresses, especially on the diseases induced by fungi and bacteria, often depends on their active periods and the susceptible stages of the host plants (Huber et al. 2012). Compared to the control, Song et al. (2016) reported that rice biomass decreased by 59 and 72% under bacterial blight infection (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) without Si addition in hydroponic and pot experiments, respectively, but decreased by 55 and 47% due to Si application. In addition, Si-mediated plant biomass carbon recovery from biotic stresses demonstrated a positive correlation with the application amount of Si (Ferreira et al. 2015). Similar to abiotic stresses, more than 96% of the Si-mediated plant biomass recovery under biotic stresses contributes to plant biomass carbon. However, the mutability of biomass carbon loss which is caused by different biotic stresses often gives rise to difficulties in evaluating Si-mediated alleviation efficiency.

Plant species with different survival strategies and habitats also have a decisive influence on the efficiency of Si-mediated alleviation of plant biomass losses (Massey et al. 2007; Kurabachew and Wydra 2014). For example, chewing insects and herbivores have few adverse effects on inherently fast-growing plant species that live in resource-rich environments, whereas they have considerable negative impacts on slow-growing plant species that live in resource-poor environments (Massey et al. 2007). Therefore, the Si-mediated alleviation of different plant species living in different habitats could lead to variations in recovery performances. Nevertheless, positive impacts have been demonstrated in crops and grasses, especially for high Si-accumulating crops (Datnoff et al. 1997; Ma and Takahashi 2002) and grasses grown in poor-resource habitats (Massey et al. 2007; Soininen et al. 2013; Hartley and DeGabriel 2016). Accordingly, we propose a hypothesis that the efficiency of Si-mediated alleviation against the severity of a certain biotic stress follows an S-shaped curve (Fig. 4(b)). The beneficial effects of the Si-modulated restoration would increase with Si supply and the severity of the biotic stresses. The relatively earlier formation of the cuticle–silica double layer and silica cells/bodies will improve resistance to biotic stresses during the highest active period of pathogens and pests. As a result, the beneficial effects of Si on plant biomass recovery from multiple biotic stresses will enhance plant biomass carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems.

6 Implications for the management of terrestrial ecosystems

In terrestrial ecosystems, biogenic Si dissolution and mineral weathering are the major sources of bio-available Si pools (Tubaña and Heckman 2015; Cornelis and Delvaux 2016). The supplement rate of monosilicic acid to soil solution depends mainly on the size of bio-available Si pools, water retention time, temperature, and Si turnover rate (Sommer et al. 2006; Liang et al. 2015; Tubaña and Heckman 2015; Cornelis and Delvaux 2016). Rapidly available Si in soils and water-soluble Si in rivers have been used to estimate the biogeochemical cycles of Si in many watersheds (Neal et al. 2005; Klotzbücher et al. 2015), while little attention has been given to the Si pool in terrestrial vegetation. However, the biogeochemical Si cycle in terrestrial ecosystems plays a considerable role in improving ANPP and ecosystem resilience (Massey et al. 2007; Tuna et al. 2008; Wu et al. 2016a). The multiple beneficial effects of Si on plant growth and biomass accumulation are more significant under various stresses (Ma and Takahashi 2002). In total, Si-mediated plant biomass restoration from multiple abiotic and biotic stresses contributes, on average, to 35% of biomass carbon (Fig. 5, Table 2) and 24% of crop yield increments (Table 3). By contrast, the effect of Si-mediated restoration of plant biomass is ambiguous under arsenic stress (Wu et al. 2016b; Zia et al. 2017). In addition, the Si-mediated defensive responses commonly demonstrate a systemic acquired acclimation (Zhu 2016) and result in survival cost minimization. Overall, regardless of the plant-available Si located in the rhizosphere, plant roots, xylem vessel, or leaves, the beneficial effects of Si on the alleviation of abiotic and biotic stresses play crucial roles in the performances of belowground and aboveground plant organs.
Fig. 5.

Frequency distributions of Si-mediated plant biomass carbon restoration from abiotic and biotic stresses. Data were collected from peer-reviewed publications. Plant biomass carbon increment was calculated from Si-mediated plant biomass increment coupling with the coefficient of 0.96, which was estimated from the tradeoff of Si-mediated plant Si accumulation and biomass carbon loss in plant biomass

Table 2

Silicon enhancement of the estimated plant biomass carbon accumulation under abiotic and biotic stresses

Stress type

Plant species

Estimated biomass carbon increment (%)

References

Drought

Sorghum bicolor

98–123

Hattori et al. (2005)

Zea mays

26–43

Kaya et al. (2006)

Triticum aestivum

− 1 to 12

Ahmad et al. (2007)

Chloris gayana

88

Eneji et al. (2008)

Sorghum sudanense

18

 

Festuca arundinacea

28

 

Phleum pratense

44

 

Triticum aestivum

48

Pei et al. (2010)

Lupinus albus

37–63

Abdalla (2011)

Sorghum bicolor

26

Ahmed et al. (2011)

Oryza sativa

57–60

Chen et al. (2011)

Oryza sativa

17

Ming et al. (2012)

Salt

Solanum lycopersicum

21

Al-Aghabary et al. (2005)

Triticum aestivum

5–49

Tuna et al. (2008)

Triticum aestivum

26–116

Ali et al. (2009)

Cucurbita pepo

− 2 to 35

Savvas et al. (2009)

Saccharum officinarum

5–83

Ashraf et al. (2010)

Oryza sativa

16–39

Shi et al. (2013)

Abelmoschus Medicus

4–15

Abbas et al. (2015)

Solanum lycopersicum

75

Li et al. (2015b)

Cicer arietinum

6–29

Garg and Bhandari (2016)

UV-B radiation

Saccharum officinarum

6–12

Elawad et al. (1985)

Glycine max

4–10

Shen et al. (2010b)

Triticum aestivum

53

Pavlovic et al. (2013)

Triticum aestivum

− 13 to − 1

Tripathi et al. (2017)

P deficiency

Oryza sativa

4–16

Ma et al. (2001)

Fe deficiency

Glycine max

− 3 to 45

Gonzalo et al. (2013)

Fe2+ toxicity

Oryza sativa

8–17

Fu et al. (2012)

Cu toxicity

Spartina densiflora

42

Mateos-Naranjo et al. (2015)

Zn toxicity

Glycine max

26–40

Pascual et al. (2016)

As toxicity

Oryza sativa

− 21 to 33

Wu et al. (2016b)

Oryza sativa

− 27 to 9

Zia et al. (2017)

Cd toxicity

Zea mays

60–123

Liang et al. (2005b)

Gossypium hirsutum

25–44

Farooq et al. (2013)

Avicennia marina

4–11

Zhang et al. (2014)

Triticum aestivum

8–40

Wu et al. (2016a)

Solanum nigrum

5

Liu et al. (2013)

Cr toxicity

Hordeum vulgare

39–59

Ali et al. (2013)

Pisum sativum

9

Tripathi et al. (2015)

Mn toxicity

Cucurbita moschata

81–137

Ma et al. (2001)

Bacterial blight

Oryza sativa

5–87

Song et al. (2016)

Bacterial fruit blotch

Cucumis melo

29–175

Ferreira et al. (2015)

Bacterial wilt

Solanum lycopersicum

42

Diogo and Wydra (2007)

Solanum lycopersicum

15–66

Kurabachew and Wydra (2014)

Brown spot

Oryza sativa

70–100

Ning et al. (2014)

Table 3

Silicon enhancement of crop yield under abiotic and biotic stresses

Stress type

Plant species

Range of yield increment (%)

References

Drought stress

Triticum aestivum

14–25

Ahmed et al. (2016)

Vitis vinifera

11–17

Zhang et al. (2017)

Salt stress

Cucurbita pepo

1–26

Savvas et al. (2009)

Vicia faba

− 6 to 48

Kardoni et al. (2013)

P deficiency

Oryza sativa

20–55

Ma et al. (2001)

As toxicity

Oryza sativa

− 17 to 60

Wu et al. (2016b)

Fungal infection

Phaseolus vulgaris

13

Polanco et al. (2014)

Neck blast

Oryza sativa

18–73

Seebold et al. (2000)

Oryza sativa

33–51

Datnoff and Rodrigues (2005)

Saccharum officinarum

4–23

Keeping and Meyer (2002)

Stalk borer damage

Saccharum officinarum

16–18

Meyer and Keeping (2005)

The restoration of plant biomass that is derived from Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic and biotic stresses would promote the ANPP of terrestrial vegetation and ecosystem carbon accumulation (Fig. 6). Different levels of Si application can change the contents of plant cellulose, lignin, and phenol that depend on plant tissue function (Schaller et al. 2012; Klotzbücher et al. 2018). In summary, the elevated ANPPs have positive effects on the long-term carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystem and soils. However, the concentration of Si in the shoots varies greatly among plant species (Ma and Takahashi 2002; Hodson et al. 2005), which suggests that Si requirement and the restoration effects will differ greatly among different plant species under the same abiotic or biotic stresses. Moreover, different defensive investment strategies among plant species against herbivore grazing (Massey et al. 2007) suggest that the efficiency of Si for different plant species to cope with various environmental stresses would also vary considerably. This means that the effects of Si on plant biomass carbon accumulation are very difficult to evaluate across many ecosystems but relatively easy for croplands and grasslands due to their fewer plant species and higher sensitivity to environmental changes. Therefore, the distribution of vegetation and the supply capacity of plant-available Si are the main determinants to evaluate the utility of Si to ecosystem resilience.
Fig. 6.

Primary approaches of Si-mediated enhancement of ecosystem ANPPs and plant biomass carbon accumulation

Terrestrial ecosystems in fragmented landscapes or resource-imbalanced regions constantly suffer from multiple abiotic and biotic stresses (Walters and Bingham 2007; Renton et al. 2013). The interconnection among the primary and secondary stresses greatly decreases plant biomass production and local biodiversity, which results in ecosystem degradation (Eneji et al. 2008; Cramer et al. 2011; Rasool et al. 2013). Because Si has versatile and beneficial effects on plant growth under multiple abiotic and biotic stresses (Liang et al. 2007; Ma and Yamaji 2008; Farooq and Dietz 2015; Meharg and Meharg 2015), more plant-available Si supply to these vulnerable landscapes could enhance the ecosystem health and resilience and thus promote the ecological restoration. Overall, ecosystems that possess more bio-available Si would have a higher ANPP (Fig. 6), which could be crucial for terrestrial carbon turnover and result in more ecosystem carbon accumulation, especially under abiotic and/or biotic stresses.

7 Conclusions and perspectives

Based on the adverse impacts of multiple stresses on plant growth and the mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation under abiotic and biotic stresses, this review highlighted the role of Si in enhancing plant biomass carbon accumulation. More plant-available Si in the ecosystem can enhance the ANPP and plant biomass carbon accumulation under various stress conditions. It is presumed that Si-mediated recovery of plant biomass usually exhibits a bell-shaped response curve to abiotic stresses and an S-shaped response curve to biotic stresses. Although more Si accumulation in plant reduces carbon concentration of plant biomass, more than 96% of the increased plant biomass contributes to plant biomass carbon accumulation. Si application to crops suffering from abiotic and biotic stresses can increase averaged plant biomass carbon and crop yield by 35 and 24%, respectively. However, the effectiveness of Si-mediated restoration significantly fluctuates with plant species and cultivars, intensity of abiotic and biotic stresses, and bio-available Si supply. Silicon-mediated alleviation usually exhibits immediate and preventive effects on plants suffering from abiotic and biotic stresses. In brief, additional Si supply and the subsequent increase in biogeochemical Si cycle could alleviate the adverse effects of abiotic and biotic stresses and thus accelerate biomass carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems.

Based on this review, we suggest that researchers should investigate further the following areas:
  1. 1.

    Because experiments on Si application have yet mainly been conducted in hydroponics and pots, field- to ecosystem-scale studies are now urgently needed.

     
  2. 2.

    Several challenges, such as the coupling relations between Si and plant essential elements, the efficiencies of Si-mediated plant biomass carbon restoration among plant species and stress intensities, and the relationship between biogeochemical Si cycle and the resilience of terrestrial ecosystems, require further investigation especially in the fragmented landscapes.

     
  3. 3.

    Finally, it should be developed an evaluation model that predicts Si-mediated recovery contribution to plant biomass carbon accumulation in different terrestrial ecosystems.

     

Notes

Funding information

We acknowledge the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Approval Nos. 41522207, 41571130042, 31572191,and 31772387) and the State’s Key Project of Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFA0601002).

References

  1. Adrees M, Ali S, Rizwan M, Rehman MZ, Ibrahim M, Abbas F, Farid M, Qayyum MF, Irshad MK (2015) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of heavy metal toxicity in plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 119:186–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.05.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandre A, M eunier JD, Colin F, Koud JM (1997) Plant impact on the biogeochemical cycle of silicon and related weathering processes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:677–682.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00001-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balasta MLFC, Perez CM, Juliano BO, Villareal CP, Lott JNA, Roxas DB (1989) Effects of silica level on some properties of Oryza sativa straw and hull. Can J Bot 67:2356–2363.  https://doi.org/10.1139/b89-301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartoli F (1985) Crystallochemistry and surface properties of biogenic opal. Eur J Soil Sci 36:335–350.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1985.tb00340.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Broadley M, Brown P, Cakmak I, Ma JF, Rengel Z, Zhao FJ (2012) Beneficial elements. In: Marschner P (ed) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Science Press, Beijing, pp 249–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384905-2.00008-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carver TLW, Zeyen RJ, Ahlstrand GG (1987) The relationship between insoluble silicon and success or failure of attempted primary penetration by powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) germiling on barley. Physiol Mol Plant P 31:133–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-5765(87)90012-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Casey WH, Kinrade SD, Knight CTG, Rains DW, Epstein E (2004) Aqueous silicate complexes in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Plant Cell Environ 27:51–54.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0016-8025.2003.01124.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chandler-Ezell K, Pearsall DM, Zeidler JA (2006) Root and tuber phytoliths and starch grains document manioc (Manihot esculenta) arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and lleren (Calathea sp.) at the Real Alto site, Ecuador. Econ Bot 60:103–120. https://doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2006)60 [103:RATPAS]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  9. Chen DQ, Cao BB, Wang SW, Liu P, Deng XP, Yin LN, Zhang SQ (2015) Silicon moderated the K deficiency by improving the plant-water status in sorghum. Sci Rep 6:22882.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep22882 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen W, Yao XQ, Cai KZ, Chen JN (2011) Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption. Biol Trace Elem Res 142:67–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8742-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooke J, Leishman RM (2016) Consistent alleviation of abiotic stress with silicon addition: a meta-analysis. Funct Ecol 30:1340–1357.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12713 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cornelis JT, Delvaux B (2016) Soil processes drive the biological silicon feedback loop. Funct Ecol 30:1298–1310.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12704 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coskun D, Britto DT, Huynh WQ, Kronzucker HJ (2016) The role of silicon in higher plants under salinity and drought stress. Front Plant Sci 7:1072.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01072 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Craine JM, Nippert JB, Elmore AJ, Skibbe AM, Hutchinson SL, Brunsell NA (2012) Timing of climate variability and grassland productivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(9):3401–3405.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1118438109 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cramer RG, Urano K, Delrot S, Pezzotti M, Shinozaki K (2011) Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective. BMC Plant Biol 11:163.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-11-163 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Damberg L, AghaKouchak A (2014) Global trends and patterns of drought from space. Theor Appl Climatol 117:441–448.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-1019-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Datnoff LE, Deren CW, Snyder GH (1997) Silicon fertilization for disease management of rice in Florida. Crop Prot 16:525–531.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(97)00033-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Debona D, Rodrigues FA, Rios JA, Nascimento KJT, Silva LC (2014) The effect of silicon on antioxidant metabolism of wheat leaves infected by Pyricularia oryzae. Plant Pathol 63:581–589.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Demidchik V (2015) Mechanisms of oxidative stress in plants: from classical chemistry to cell biology. Environ Exp Bot 109:212–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2014.06.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deshmukh R, Bélanger RR (2016) Molecular evolution of aquaporins and silicon influx in plants. Funct Ecol 30:1277–1285.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12570 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deshmukh RK, Vivancos J, Ramakrishnan G, Guérin V, Carpentier G, Sonah H, Labbé C, Isenring P, Belzile FJ, Bélanger RR (2015) A precise spacing between the NPA domains of aquaporins is essential for silicon permeability in plants. Plant J 83(3):489–500.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12904 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Detmann KC, Araújo WL, Martins SCV, Sanglard LMVP, Reis JV, Detmann E, Rodrigues F, Nunes-Nesi A, Fernie AR, DaMatta FM (2012) Silicon nutrition increases grain yield, which, in turn, exerts a feed-forward stimulation of photosynthetic rates via enhanced mesophyll conductance and alters primary metabolism in rice. New Phytol 196:752–762.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04299.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Diogo VCR, Wydra K (2007) Silicon-induced basal resistance in tomato against Ralstonia solanacearum is related to modification of pectic cell wall polysaccharide structure. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 70:120–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2007.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Douma JC, Pautasso M, Venette RC, Robinet C, Hemerik L, Mourits MCM, Schans J, van der Werf W (2016) Pathway models for analysing and managing the introduction of alien plant pests—an overview and categorization. Ecol Model 339:58–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dow M, An SQ, O'Connell A (2017) Bacterial diseases. In: Thomas B, Murray GB and Murphy JD (Eds) Encyclopedia of applied plant sciences. Volume 3: crop systems. 2nd edn. Elsevier Amsterdam, pp. 59–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394807-6.00051-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eneji AE, Inanaga S, Muranaka S, Li J, Hattori T, An P, Tsuji W (2008) Growth and nutrient use in four grasses under drought stress as mediated by silicon fertilizers. J Plant Nutr 31:355–365.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160801894913 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Epstein E (1999) Silicon. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:641–664.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.641 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Etesami H, Jeong BR (2018) Silicon (Si): review and future prospects on the action mechanisms in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 147:881–896.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.09.063 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Farooq AM, Ali S, Hameed A, Ishaque W, Mahmood K, Iqbal Z (2013) Alleviation of cadmium toxicity by silicon is related to elevated photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes; suppressed cadmium uptake and oxidative stress in cotton. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 96:242–249.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.07.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA (2009) Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agron Sustain Dev 29:185–212.  https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2008021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farooq AM, Dietz KJ (2015) Silicon as versatile player in plant and human biology: overlooked and poorly understood. Front Plant Sci 6:994.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00994 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ferreira HA, Araújo do Nascimento CW, Datnoff LE, de Sousa Nunes GH, Preston W, de Souza EB, de Lima Ramos Mariano R (2015) Effects of silicon on resistance to bacterial fruit blotch and growth of melon. Crop Prot 78:277–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.09.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fu YQ, Shen H, Wu DM, Cai KZ (2012) Silicon-mediated amelioration of Fe2+ toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots. Pedosphere 22(6):795–802.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(12)60065-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. García AJ, Pallás V (2015) Viral factors involved in plant pathogenesis. Curr Opin Virol 11:21–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2015.01.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Genga A, Mattana M, Coraggio I, Locatelli F, Piffanelli P, Consonni R (2011) Plant metabolomics: a characterisation of plant responses to abiotic stresses. In: Shanker A (ed) Abiotic stress in plants—mechanisms and adaptations. InTech, Rijeka.  https://doi.org/10.5772/23844 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ghanmi D, McNally DJ, Benhamou N, Menzies JG, Bélanger RR (2004) Powdery mildew of Arabidopsis thaliana: a pathosystem for exploring the role of silicon in plant–microbe interactions. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 64:189–199.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2004.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gilioli G, Schrader G, Baker RHA, Ceglarska E, Kertész VK, Lövei G, Navajas M, Rossi V, Tramontini S, van Lenteren JC (2014) Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services. Sci Total Environ 468-469:475–486.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.068 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gong B, Zhang GF (2014) Interactions between plants and herbivores: a review of plant defense. Acta Ecol Sin 34:325–336.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2013.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gong HJ, Randall DP, Flowers TJ (2006) Silicon deposition in the root reduces sodium uptake in rice seedlings by reducing bypass flow. Plant Cell Environ 111:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2006.01572.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gonzalo JM, Lucena JJ, Hernández-Apaolaza L (2013) Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency. Plant Physiol Biochem 70:455–461.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.06.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gostinčar C, Grube M, Gunde-Cimerman N (2011) Evolution of fungal pathogens in domestic environments? Fungal Biol 115:1008–1018.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2011.03.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Goyal A, Manoharachary C (2014) Future challenges in crop protection against fungal pathogens. Springer-Verlag, New York.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1188-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gu HH, Qiu H, Tian T, Zhan SS, Deng Teng HB, Chaney LR, Wang SZ, Tang YT, Morel JL, Qiu RL (2011) Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil. Chemosphere 83:1234–1240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.03.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Guntzer F, Keller C, Meunier JD (2012) Benefits of plant silicon for crops: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 32:201–213.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0039-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hansen DJ, Dayanandan P, Kaufman PB, Brotherson JD (1976) Ecological adaptations of salt marsh grass Distichlis spicata (Gramineae) and environment factors affecting its growth and distribution. Am J Bot 63:635–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hartley ES, DeGabriel LJ (2016) The ecology of herbivore-induced silicon defences in grasses. Funct Ecol 30:1311–1322.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12706 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Roychowdhury R, Fujita M (2013) Physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance in plants. Int J Mol Sci 14:9643–9684.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14059643 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hashemi A, Abdolzadeh A, Sadeghipour HR (2010) Beneficial effects of silicon nutrition in alleviating salinity stress in hydroponically grown canola, Brassica napus L. plants. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 56:244–253.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2009.00443.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hattori T, Inanaga S, Tanimoto E, Lux A, Luxová M, Sugimoto Y (2003) Silicon-induced changes in viscoelastic properties of sorghum root cell walls. Plant Cell Physiol 44:743–749.  https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcg090 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hattori T, Inanaga S, Araki H, An P, Morita S, Luxová M, Lux A (2005) Application of silicon enhanced drought tolerance in Sorghum bicolour. Physiol Plant 123(4):459–466.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2005.00481.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hattori T, Sonobe K, Inanaga S, Morita S (2008) Effects of silicon on photosynthesis of young cucumber seedlings under osmotic stress. J Plant Nutr 31:1046–1058.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160801928380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. He CW, Wang LJ, Liu J, Liu X, Li XL, Ma J, Lin YJ, Xu FS (2013) Evidence for ‘silicon’ within the cell walls of suspension-cultured rice cells. New Phytol 200:700–709.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12401 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Heath MC, Stumpf MA (1986) Ultrastructural observations of penetration sites of the cowpea rust fungus in untreated and silicon-depleted French bean cells. Physiol Mol Plant P 29:27–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-4059(86)80035-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heine G, Tikum G, Horst JW (2007) The effect of silicon on the infection by and spread of Phytium aphanidermatum in single roots of tomato and bitter gourd. J Exp Bot 58:569–577.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erl232 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hernandez-Apaolaza L (2014) Can silicon partially alleviate micronutrient deficiency in plants? A review. Planta 240:447–458.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-014-2119-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hobara S, Fukunaga-Yoshida S, Suzuki T, Matsumoto S, Matoh T, Ae N (2016) Plant silicon uptake increases active aluminum minerals in root-zone soil: implications for plant influence on soil carbon. Geoderma 279:45–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.05.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hodson MJ, Sangster AG (1989) Silica deposition in the inflorescence bracts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) II. X-ray microanalysis and backscattered electron imaging. Can J Bot 67:281–287.  https://doi.org/10.1139/b89-041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hodson MJ, White PJ, Mead A, Broadley MR (2005) Phylogenetic variation in the silicon composition of plants. Ann Bot 96:1027–1046.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci255 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Huber D, Romheld V, Weimann M (2012) Relationship between nutrition, plant diseases and pests. In: Petra M (ed) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Science Press, Beijing, pp 283–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384905-2.00010-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Imtiaz M, Rizwan MS, Mushtaq MA, Ashraf M, Shahzad SM, Yousaf B, Saeed DA, Rizwan M, Nawaz MA, Mehmood S, Tu S (2016) Silicon occurrence, uptake, transport and mechanisms of heavy metals, minerals and salinity enhanced tolerance in plants with future prospects: a review. J Environ Manag 183:521–529.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Irisarri JGN, Derner JD, Porensry LM, Augustine DT, Reeves JL, Mueller KE (2016) Grazing intensity differentially regulates ANPP response to precipitation in North American semiarid grasslands. Ecol Appl 26(5):1370–1380.  https://doi.org/10.1890/15-1332 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jansen MAK, Van Den Noort RE (2000) Ultraviolet-B radiation induces complex alterations in stomatal behaviour. Physiol Plant 110:189–194.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2000.110207.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Johnson NS, Benefer MC, Frew A, Griffiths SB, Hartley ES, Karley JA, Rasmann S, Schumann M, Sonnemann I, Robert AMC (2016) New frontiers in belowground ecology for plant protection from root-feeding insects. Appl Soil Ecol 108:96–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.07.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson NS, Hallett PD, Gillespie TL, Halpin C (2010) Belowground herbivory and root toughness: a potential model system using lignin-modified tobacco. Physiol Entomol 35:186–191.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3032.2010.00723.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kang JJ, Zhao WZ, Zhu X (2016) Silicon improves photosynthesis and strengthens enzyme activities in the C3 succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum under drought stress. J Plant Physiol 199:76–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2016.05.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Katz O (2015) Silica phytoliths in angiosperms: phylogeny and early evolutionary history. New Phytol 208:642–646.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13559 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kaya C, Tuna L, Higgs D (2006) Effect of silicon on plant growth and mineral nutrition of maize grown under water-stress conditions. J Plant Nutr 29:1469–1480.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160600837238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kim YH, Khan AL, Waqas M, Shim JK, Kim DH, Lee KY, Lee IJ (2014) Silicon application to rice root zone influenced the phytohormonal and antioxidant responses under salinity stress. J Plant Growth Regul 33:137–149.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-013-9356-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kim BS, French E, Caldwell D, Harrington JE, Iyer-Pascuzzi SA (2016) Bacterial wilt disease: host resistance and pathogen virulence mechanisms. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 95:37–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2016.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Klotzbücher T, Klotzbücher A, Kaiser K, Vetterlein D, Jahn R, Mikutta R (2018) Variable silicon accumulation in plants affects terrestrial carbon cycling by controlling lignin synthesis. Glob Chang Biol 24:183–189.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13845 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Klotzbücher T, Marxen A, Vetterlein D, Schneiker J, Türke M, Sinh NV, Manh NH, Chien HV, Marquez L, Villareal S, Bustamante VJ, Jahn R (2015) Plant-available silicon in paddy soils as a key factor for sustainable rice production in Southeast Asia. Basic Appl Ecol 16:665–673.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2014.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kogan F, Stark R, Gitelson A, Jargalsaikhan L, Dugrajav C, Tsooj S (2004) Derivation of pasture biomass in Mongolia from AVHRR-based vegetation health indices. Int J Remote Sens 25(14):2889–2896.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160410001697619 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kostic L, Nikolic N, Bosnic D, Samardzic J, Nikolic M (2017) Silicon increases phosphorus (P) uptake by wheat under low P acid soil conditions. Plant Soil.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3364-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kurabachew H, Wydra K (2014) Induction of systemic resistance and defense-related enzymes after elicitation of resistance by rhizobacteria and silicon application against Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Crop Prot 57:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.10.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lehmann S, Serrano M, L’Haridon F, Tjamos ES, Metraux JP (2015) Reactive oxygen species and plant resistance to fungal pathogens. Phytochemistry 112:54–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.08.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Levitt J (1980) Responses of plants to environmental stresses. Vol. 1: chilling, freezing, and high temperature stresses, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, pp 102–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-445501-6.50008-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Li P, Song AL, Li ZJ, Fan FL, Liang YC (2015a) Silicon ameliorates manganese toxicity by regulating both physiological processes and expression of genes associated with photosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Plant Soil 397:289–301.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2626-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liang YC, Nikolic M, Bélanger R, Gong G, Song A (2015) Silicon biogeochemistry and bioavailability in soil. In: Silicon in agriculture: from theory to practice. Springer, Netherlands, pp 45–68.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9978-2_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liang YC, Sun WC, Zhu YG, Christie P (2007) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Environ Pollut 147:422–428.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.06.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Liang YC, Si J, Römheld V (2005a) Silicon uptake and transport is an active process in Cucumis sativus L. New Phytol 167:797–804.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01463.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Liang YC, Wong JWC, Wei L (2005b) Silicon-mediated enhancement of cadmium tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) grown in cadmium contaminated soil. Chemosphere 58:475–483.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.09.034 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Liang YC, Sun WC, Si J, Römheld V (2005c) Effect of foliar- and root-applied silicon on the enhancement of induced resistance in Cucumis sativus to powdery mildew. Plant Pathol 54:678–685.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01246.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Liang YC, Zhu J, Li ZJ, Chu GX, Ding YF, Zhang J, Sun WC (2008) Role of silicon in enhancing resistance to freezing stress in two contrasting winter wheat cultivars. Environ Exp Bot 64:286–294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2008.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lukačová Z, Švubová R, Kohanová J, Lux A (2013) Silicon mitigates the Cd toxicity in maize in relation to cadmium translocation, cell distribution, antioxidant enzymes stimulation and enhanced endodermal apoplasmic barrier development. Plant Growth Regul 70:89–103.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-012-9781-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lux A, Luxová M, Abe J, Tanimoto E, Hattori T, Inanaga S (2003) The dynamics of silicon deposition in the sorghum root endodermis. New Phytol 158:437–441.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00764.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Luyckx M, Hausman JF, Lutts S, Guerriero G (2017) Silicon and plants: current knowledge and technological perspectives. Front Plant Sci 8:411.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00411 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ma J, Cai HM, He CW, Zhang WJ, Wang LJ (2014) A hemicellulose-bound form of silicon inhibits cadmium ion uptake in rice (Oryza sativa) cells. New Phytol 206:1063–1074.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ma JF, Miyake Y, Takahashi E (2001) Silicon as a beneficial element for crop plants. In: Datonoff L, Snyder G, Korndorfer G (eds) Silicon in agriculture. Elsevier Science, New York, pp 17–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0928-3420(01)80006-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ma JF, Takahashi E (1990) Effect of silicon on the growth and phosphorus uptake of rice. Plant Soil 126:115–119.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00041376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ma JF, Takahashi E (2002) Soil, fertilizer, and plant silicon research in Japan. Elsevier, Amsterdam.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-044451166-9/50004-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ma JF, Yamaji N (2006) Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci 11:392–397.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2006.06.007 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ma JF, Yamaji N (2008) Functions and transport of silicon in plants. Cell Mol Life Sci 65:3049–3057.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-008-7580-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ma JF, Yamaji N (2015) A cooperative system of silicon transport in plants. Trends Plant Sci 20:435–442.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2015.04.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ma JF, Yamaji N, Mitani N, Xu XY, Su YH, McGrath PS, Zhao FJ (2008) Transporters of arsenite in rice and their role in arsenic accumulation in rice grain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:9931–9935.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0802361105 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Marmiroli M, Pigoni V, Savo-Sardaro ML, Marmiroli N (2014) The effect of silicon on the uptake and translocation of arsenic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Environ Exp Bot 99:9–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2013.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Massey PF, Ennos AR, Hartley ES (2007) Grasses and the resource availability hypothesis: the importance of silica-based defences. J Ecol 95:414–424.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01223.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mateos-Naranjo E, Gallé A, Florez-Sarasa I, Perdomo AJ, Galmés J, Ribas-Carbó M, Flexas J (2015) Assessment of the role of silicon in the Cu-tolerance of the C4 grass Spartina densiflora. J Plant Physiol 178:74–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2015.03.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Meharg C, Meharg AA (2015) Silicon, the silver bullet for mitigating biotic and abiotic stress, and improving grain quality, in rice? Environ Exp Bot 120:8–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Menzies JG, Ehret DL, Glass ADM, Helmer T, Koch C, Seywerd F (1991) Effects of soluble silicon on the parasitic fitness of Sphaerotheca fuliginea on Cucumis sativus. Phytopathology 81:84–88.  https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-81-84 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ming DF, Pei ZF, Naeem MS, Gong HJ, Zhou WJ (2012) Silicon alleviates PEG-induced water-deficit stress in upland rice seedlings by enhancing osmotic adjustment. J Agron Crop Sci 198:14–26.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2011.00486.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mitani N, Ma JF, Iwashita T (2005) Identification of the silicon form in xylem sap of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Plant Cell Physiol 46:279–283.  https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pci018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nagajyoti PC, Lee KD, Sreekanth TVM (2010) Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environ Chem Lett 8:199–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-010-0297-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Narayanasamy P (2011) Microbial plant pathogens-detection and disease diagnosis: detection of bacterial and phytoplasmal pathogens. Springer, Netherlands, pp 5–169.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9769-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nascimento TJK, Debona D, Silveira RP, Silva CL, DaMatta MF, Rodrigues ÁF (2016) Silicon-induced changes in the antioxidant system reduce soybean resistance to frogeye leaf spot. J Phytopathol 164:768–778.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jph.12497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Neal C, Neal M, Reynolds B, Maberly CS, May L, Ferrier CR, Smith J, Parker EJ (2005) Silicon concentrations in UK surface waters. J Hydrol 304(2005):75–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.07.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Neu S, Schaller J, Dudel ET (2017) Silicon availability modifies nutrient use efficiency and content, C:N:P stoichiometry, and productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Sci Rep 7:40829.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40829 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Nicol JM, Turner SJ, Coyne DL, Nijs L, Hockland S, Maafi ZT (2011) Current nematode threats to world agriculture. In: Jones J, Gheysen G, Fenoll C (eds) Genomics and molecular genetics of plant–nematode interactions. Springer, Netherlands, pp 21–43.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0434-3_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ortega L, Fry SC, Taleisnik E (2006) Why are Chloris gayana leaves shorter in salt-affected plants? Analyses in the elongation zone. J Exp Bot 57:3945–3952.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erl168 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Pavlovic J, Samardzic J, Maksimović V, Timotijevic G, Stevic N, Laursen HK, Hansen HT, Husted S, Schjoerring JK, Liang YC, Nikolic M (2013) Silicon alleviates iron deficiency in cucumber by promoting mobilization of iron in the root apoplast. New Phytol 198:1096–1107.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12213 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pearson M (2017) Viral diseases. In: Thomas B, Murray GB, Murphy JD (eds) Encyclopedia of applied plant sciences. Volume 3: crop systems, 2nd edn. Elsevier, pp 137–147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394807-6.00057-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pham CH, Min J, Gu MB (2004) Pesticide induced toxicity and stress response in bacterial cells. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 72:380–386.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-003-8845-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pei ZF, Ming DF, Liu D, Wan GL, Geng XX, Gong HJ, Zhou WJ (2010) Silicon improves the tolerance to water-deficit stress induced by polyethylene glycol in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. J Plant Growth Regul 29:106–115.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-009-9120-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pokrovski SG, Schott J, Farges F, Hazemann JL (2003) Iron (III)–silica interactions in aqueous solution: Insights from X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:3559–3573.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00160-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pontigo S, Ribera A, Gianfreda L, Mora MDLL, Nikolic M, Cartes P (2015) Silicon in vascular plants: uptake, transport and its influence on mineral stress under acidic conditions. Planta 242:23–37.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-015-2333-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Prudhomme C, Giuntoli I, Robinson LE, Clark BD, Arnell WN, Dankers R, Fekete MB, Franssen W, Gerten D, Gosling NS, Hagemann S, Hannah MD, Kim H, Masaki Y, Satoh Y, Stacke T, Wada Y, Wissern D (2014) Hydrological droughts in the 21st century, hotspots and uncertainties from a global multimodel ensemble experiment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:3262–3267.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1222473110 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rasool S, Hameed A, Azooz MM, Muneeb-u-Rehman, Siddiqi TO, Parvaiz Ahmad P (2013) Salt stress: causes, types and responses of plants. In: Ahmad P, Azooz MM, Prasad MNV (eds) Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress. Springer, New York, pp 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4747-4_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Raven JA (2001) Silicon transport at the cell and tissue level. In: Datnoff LE, Snyder GH, Korndörfer GH (eds) Silicon in agriculture. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 41–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0928-3420(01)80007-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ray M, Ray A, Dash S, Mishra A, Achary KG, Nayak S, Singh S (2017) Fungal disease detection in plants: traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 87:708–723.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.09.032 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Renton M, Childs S, Standish R, Shackelford N (2013) Plant migration and persistence under climate change in fragmented landscapes: does it depend on the key point of vulnerability within the lifecycle? Ecol Model 249:50–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rios JJ, Martinez-Ballesta M, Ruiz JM, Blasco Leòn B, Carvajal M (2017) Silicon-mediated improvement in plant salinity tolerance: the role of aquaporins. Front Plant Sci 8:948.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00948 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Rizwan M, Ali S, Ibrahim M, Farid M, Adrees M, Bharwana AS, Zia-ur-Rehman M, Qayyum FM, Abbas F (2015) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:15416–15431.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5305-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Savant NK, Snyder GH, Datnoff LE (1997) Silicon management and sustainable rice production. Adv Agron 58:151–199.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629709369870 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Savvides A, Ali S, Tester M, Fotopoulos V (2016) Chemical priming of plants against multiple abiotic stresses: mission possible? Trends Plant Sci 21:329–340.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2015.11.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Schaller J, Brackhage C, Gessner MO, Bäuker E, Gert Dudel E (2012) Silicon supply modifies C:N:P stoichiometry and growth of Phragmites australis. Plant Biol 14:392–396.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2011.00537.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Schieber M, Chandel NS (2014) ROS function in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Curr Biol 24:R453–R462.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.034 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Schönbach P, Wan HW, Gierus M, Bai YF, Müller K, Liu LJ, Susenbeth A, Taube F (2010) Grassland responses to grazing: effects of grazing intensity and management system in an Inner Mongolian steppe ecosystem. Plant Soil 340(1):103–115.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0366-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shen X, Li X, Li Z, Li J, Duan L, Eneji AE (2010a) Growth, physiological attributes and antioxidant enzyme activities in soybean seedlings treated with or without silicon under UV-B radiation stress. J Agron Crop Sci 196:431–439.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2010.00428.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shen XF, Zhou YY, Duan LS, Li ZH, Eneji AE, Li JM (2010b) Silicon effects on photosynthesis and antioxidant parameters of soybean seedlings under drought and ultraviolet-B radiation. J Plant Physiol 167:1248–1252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2010.04.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Shi Y, Wang YC, Flowers JT, Gong HJ (2013) Silicon decreases chloride transport in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in saline conditions. J Plant Physiol 170:847–853.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.01.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Skjemstad JO, Fitzpatrick RW, Zarcinas BA, Thompson CH (1992) Genesis of Podzols on coastal dunes in southern Queensland: II. Geochemistry and forms of elements as deduced from various soil extraction procedures. Aust J Soil Sci 30:615–644.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR9920645 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Soininen ME, Bråthen AK, Jusdado HGJ, Reidinger S, Hartley ES (2013) More than herbivory: levels of silica-based defences in grasses vary with plant species, genotype and location. Oikos 122:30–41.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20689.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Song AL, Li P, Fan FL, Li ZJ, Liang YC (2014) The effect of silicon on photosynthesis and expression of its relevant genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under high-Zn stress. PLoS One 9(11):e113782.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Song AL, Xue GF, Cui PY, Fan FL, Liu HF, Yin C, Sun WC, Liang YC (2016) The role of silicon in enhancing resistance to bacterial blight of hydroponic- and soil-cultured rice. Sci Rep 6:24640.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24640 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Song AL, Fan FL, Yin C, Wen SL, Zhang YL, Fan XP, Liang YC (2017) The effects of silicon fertilizer on denitrification potential and associated genes abundance in paddy soil. Biol Fertil Soils 53:627–638.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-017-1206-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sommer M, Kaczorek D, Kuzyakov Y, Breuer J (2006) Silicon pools and fluxes in soils and landscapes—a review. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 169:310–329.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200521981 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Soundararajan P, Sivanesan I, Jana S, Jeong BR (2014) Influence of silicon supplementation on the growth and tolerance to high temperature in Salvia splendens. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 55:271–279.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-014-0023-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sumner ME, Noble AD (2003) Soil acidification: the world story. In: Rengel Z (ed) Handbook of soil acidity. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–28.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203912317.ch1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Suzuki S, Ma JF, Yamamoto N, Toshiaki U (2012) Silicon deficiency promotes lignin accumulation in rice. Plant Biotechnol 29:391–394.  https://doi.org/10.5511/plantbiotechnology.12.0416a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Tripathi DK, Singh S, Singh VP, Prasad SM, Dubey NK, Chauhan DK (2017) Silicon nanoparticles more effectively alleviated UV-B stress than silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. Plant Physiol Biochem 110:70–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.06.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Tripathi DK, Singh S, Singh VP, Prasad SM, Chauhan DK, Dubey NK (2016a) Silicon nanoparticles more efficiently alleviate arsenate toxicity than silicon in maize cultiver and hybrid differing in arsenate tolerance. Front Environ Sci 4:46.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tripathi, DK, Singh S, Singh S, Chauhan DK, Dubey NK, Prasad R (2016b) Silicon as a beneficial element to combat the adverse effect of drought in agricultural crops. In: Ahmad (ed) Water stress and crop plants: a sustainable approach, pp 682–694.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119054450.ch39 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tripathi DK, Singh VP, Prasad SM, Chauhan DK, Dubey NK (2015) Silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) alleviate chromium (VI) phytotoxicity in Pisum sativum (L.) seedlings. Plant Physiol Biochem 96:189–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.07.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Tripathi P, Tripathi RD, Singh RP, Dwivedi S, Goutam D, Shri M, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D (2013) Silicon mediates arsenic tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) through lowering of arsenic uptake and improved antioxidant defence system. Ecol Eng 52:96–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.12.057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tubaña BS, Heckman JR (2015) Silicon in soils and plants. In: Rodrigues FA, Datnoff LE (eds) Silicon and plant diseases. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp 7–51.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22930-0_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tuna AL, Kaya C, Higgs D, Murillo-Amador B, Aydemir S, Girgin RA (2008) Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environ Exp Bot 62:10–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Van Bockhaven J, Spíchal L, Novák O, Strnad M, Asano T, Kikuchi S, Höfte M, De Vleesschauwer D (2015) Silicon induces resistance to the brown spot fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus by preventing the pathogen from hijacking the rice ethylene pathway. New Phytol 206:761–773.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13270 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Vivancos J, Deshmukh R, Grégoire C, Rémus-Borel W, Belzile F, Bélanger RR (2016) Identification and characterization of silicon efflux transporters in horsetail (Equisetum arvense). J Plant Physiol 200:82–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2016.06.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Vivancos J, Labbé C, Menzies GJ, Bélanger RR (2015) Silicon-mediated resistance of Arabidopsis against powdery mildew involves mechanisms other than the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence pathway. Mol Plant Pathol 16:572–582.  https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12213 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Walters DR, Bingham IJ (2007) Influence of nutrition on disease development caused by fungal pathogens: implications for plant disease control. Ann Appl Biol 151:307–324.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2007.00176.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wang M, Gao LM, Dong SY, Sun YM, Shen QR, Guo SW (2017) Role of silicon on plant–pathogen interactions. Front Plant Sci 8:701.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00701 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Wang XS, Han JG (2007) Effects of NaCl and silicon on ion distribution in the roots, shoots and leaves of two alfalfa cultivars with different salt tolerance. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53:278–285.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00135.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Weiss A, Herzog A (1978) Isolation and characterization of a silicon–organic complex from plants. In: Gendz G, Lindgrist I, Runnström-Reio V (eds) Biochemistry of silicon and related problems. Plenum Press, New York, pp 109–127.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4018-8_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wu W, Huang JL, Cui KH, Nie LX, Wang Q, Yang F, Shah F, Yao FX, Peng SB (2012) Sheath blight reduces stem breaking resistance and increases lodging susceptibility of rice plants. Field Crop Res 128:101–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wu JW, Geilfus CM, Pitann B, Mühling KH (2016a) Silicon-enhanced oxalate exudation contributes to alleviation of cadmium toxicity in wheat. Environ Exp Bot 131:10–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2016.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wu C, Zou Q, Xue SG, Pan WS, Huang L, Hartley W, Mo JY, Wong MH (2016b) The effect of silicon on iron plaque formation and arsenic accumulation in rice genotypes with different radial oxygen loss (ROL). Environ Pollut 212:27–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Xu DH, Fang XW, Zhang RY, Gao TP, Bu BY, Du GZ (2015) Influences of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon addition on plant productivity and species richness in an alpine meadow. AoB Plants 7:plv125.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plv125 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Yamaji N, Sakurai G, Mitani-Ueno N, Ma JF (2015) Orchestration of three transporters and distinct vascular structures in node for intervascular transfer of silicon in rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:11401–11406.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1508987112 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Yin LN, Wang SW, Li JY, Tanaka K, Oka M (2013) Application of silicon improves salt tolerance through ameliorating osmotic and ionic stresses in the seedling of Sorghum bicolor. Acta Physiol Plant 35:3099–3107.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-013-1343-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zhang GL, Cui YX, Ding XW, Dai QG (2013) Stimulation of phenolic metabolism by silicon contributes to rice resistance to sheath blight. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 176:118–124.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201200008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhu JK (2016) Abiotic stress signaling and responses in plants. Cell 167:313–324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.029 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Zhu YX, Gong HJ (2014) Beneficial effects of silicon on salt and drought tolerance in plants. Agron Sustain Dev 34:455–472.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0194-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zhu YX, Guo J, Feng R, Jia JH, Han WH, Gong HJ (2016) The regulatory role of silicon on carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus L. under salt stress. Plant Soil 406:231–249.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-016-2877-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zia Z, Bakhat HF, Saqib ZA, Shah GM, Fahad S, Ashraf MR, Hammad HM, Naseem W, Shahid M (2017) Effect of water management and silicon on germination, growth, phosphorus and arsenic uptake in rice. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 144:11–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.06.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

References of the meta-analysis

  1. Abbas T, Balal RM, Shahid MA, Pervez MA, Ayyub CM, Aqueel MA, Javaid MM (2015) Silicon-induced alleviation of NaCl toxicity in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is associated with enhanced photosynthesis, osmoprotectants and antioxidant metabolism. Acta Physiol Plant 37:6.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-014-1768-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdalla MM (2011) Beneficial effects of diatomite on the growth, the biochemical contents and polymorphic DNA in Lupinus albus plants grown under water stress. Agric Biol J N Am 2:207–220.  https://doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2011.2.2.207.220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed M, Hassen F, Khurshid Y (2011) Does silicon and irrigation have impact on drought tolerance mechanism of sorghum? Agric Water Manage 98:1808–1812.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed M, Qadeer U, Ahmed ZI, Hassan F (2016) Improvement of wheat (Triticum aestivum) drought tolerance by seed priming with silicon. Arch Agron Soil Sci 62(3):299–315.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2015.1048235 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmad F, Rahmatullah AT, Maqsood MA, Tahir MA, Kanwal S (2007) Effect of silicon application on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth under water deficiency stress. Emir J Food Agric 19(2):1–7.  https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v12i1.5170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-aghabary K, Zhu Z, Shi Q (2005) Influence of silicon supply on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato plants under salt stress. J Plant Nutr 27:2101–2115.  https://doi.org/10.1081/PLN-200034641 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ali A, Basra SM, Ahmad R, Wahid A (2009) Optimizing silicon application to improve salinity tolerance in wheat. Soil Environ 2:136–144Google Scholar
  8. Ali S, Farooq MA, Yasmeen T, Hussain S, Arif MS, Abbas F, Bharwana SA, Zhang GP (2013) The influence of silicon on barley growth, photosynthesis and ultra-structure under chromium stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 89:66–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.11.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashraf M, Rahmatullah, Afzal M, Ahmed R, Mujeeb F, Sarwar A, Ali L (2010) Alleviation of detrimental effects of NaCl by silicon nutrition in salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Plant Soil 326:381–391.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0019-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Datnoff LE, Rodrigues LA (2005) The role of silicon in suppressing rice diseases. APSnet Features.  https://doi.org/10.1094/APSnetFeature-2005-0205
  11. Elawad SH, Allen LH, Gascho GJ (1985) Influence of UV-B radiation and soluble silicates on the growth and nutrient concentration of sugarcane. Soil Crop Sci Soc Fla 44:134–141Google Scholar
  12. Garg N, Bhandari P (2016) Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate–glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity. Protoplasma 253:1325–1345.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-015-0892-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kardoni F, Mosavi SJS, Parande S, Torbaghan ME (2013) Effect of salinity stress and silicon application on yield and component yield offaba bean (Viciafaba). Int J Agric Crop Sci 6(12):814–818Google Scholar
  14. Keeping MG, Meyer JH (2002) Calcium silicate enhances resistance of sugarcane to the African stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Agric Forest Entomol 4:265–274.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-9563.2002.00150.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li HL, Zhu YX, Hu YH, Han WH, Gong HJ (2015b) Beneficial effects of silicon in alleviating salinity stress of tomato seedlings grown under sand culture. Acta Physiol Plant 37:71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-015-1818-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu JG, Zhang HM, Zhang YX, Chai TY (2013) Silicon attenuates cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L. by reducing cadmium uptake and oxidative stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 68:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.03.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Meyer JH, Keeping MG (2005) Impact of silicon in alleviating biotic stress in sugarcane in South Africa. Proc S Afr Sugar Technol Assoc 23:14–18Google Scholar
  18. Ning DF, Song AL, Fan FL, Li ZJ, Liang YC (2014) Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance. PLoS One 9(7):e102681.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102681 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Pascual MB, Echevarria V, Gonzalo MJ, Hernandez-Apaolaza L (2016) Silicon addition to soybean (Glycine max L.) plants alleviate zinc deficiency. Plant Physiol Biochem 108:132–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.07.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Polanco LR, Rodrigues FA, Moreira EN, Duarte HSS, Cacique IS, Valente LA, Vieira RF, Paula Júnior TJ, Vale FXR (2014) Management of anthracnose in common bean by foliar sprays of potassium silicate, sodium molybdate, and fungicide. Plant Dis 98:84–89.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0251-RE CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Savvas D, Giotis D, Chatzieustratiou E, Bakea M, Patakioutas G (2009) Silicon supply in soilless cultivations of zucchini alleviates stress induced by salinity and powdery mildew infections. Environ Exp Bot 65:11–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2008.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Seebold KW, Datnoff LE, Correa-Victoria FJ, Kucharek TA, Snyder GH (2000) Effect of silicon rate and host resistance on blast, scald, and yield of upland rice. Plant Dis 84(8):871–876.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.8.871 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang Q, Yan CL, Liu JC, Lu HL, Duan HH, Du JN, Wang WY (2014) Silicon alleviation of cadmium toxicity in mangrove (Avicennia marina) in relation to cadmium compartmentation. J Plant Growth Regul 33:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang M, Liang YC, Chu GX (2017) Applying silicate fertilizer increases both yield and quality of table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) grown on calcareous grey desert soil. Sci Hortic 225:757–763.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.08.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Surface-Earth System ScienceTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional PlanningChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations