Impact of agricultural land use in Central Asia: a review
Agriculture is major sector in the economy of Central Asia. The sustainable use of agricultural land is therefore essential to economic growth, human well-being, social equity, and ecosystem services. However, salinization, erosion, and desertification cause severe land degradation which, in turn, degrade human health and ecosystem services. Here, we review the impact of agricultural land use in the five countries of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, during 2008–2013 in 362 articles. We use the Land Use Functions framework to analyze the type and relative shares of environmental, economic, and social topics related to agricultural land use. Our major findings are (1) research on land use in Central Asia received high levels of international attention and the trend in the number of publications exceeded the global average. (2) The impacts of land use on abiotic environmental resources were the most explored. (3) Little research is available about how agricultural land use affects biotic resources. (4) Relationships between land degradation, e.g., salinization and dust storms, and human health were the least explored. (5) The literature is dominated by indirect methods of data analysis, such as remote sensing and mathematical modeling, and in situ data collection makes up only a small proportion.
KeywordsCentral Asia Land Use Functions Agriculture Sustainable land use Research gaps Salinization Human health
Central Asia is geopolitically and strategically important because of its geographic position. The Central Asian states Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are situated in the heart of the Eurasian continent and form a trade link between China, the Middle East, and Europe (Liu 2011). Upon entering into membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, this region has been viewed as a new route of multilateral partnership between the political powers of Russia and China (Wilhelmsen and Flikke 2011). The region is strategically important in the global economy, especially for trading carbon credits (Lal 2007) and exporting natural resources (oil, gas, energy, gold, and minerals). All five countries became independent from the Soviet Union in 1991, and they share a culture and a way of life that incorporate elements from both the East and the West (Olcott 1996). Prior to independence, these countries were socio-economically interdependent within the centrally planned Soviet economy. Agriculture was one of the major economic sectors of the Central Asian countries and accounted for 10 to 45 % of their gross domestic product (GDP), employing 20 to 50 % of the labor force (Qushimov et al. 2007). To date, agriculture remains an important sector in the economy of Central Asia, contributing 5.2 % of the GDP in Kazakhstan, 7.5 % in Turkmenistan, 18.5 % in Uzbekistan, 20.8 % in Kyrgyzstan, and 23.3 % in Tajikistan (Abdullaev 2014; Bobojonov and Aw-Hassan 2014).
The advancing desertification and soil degradation of the Aral Sea in Kazakhstan’s and Uzbekistan’s territories have further impeded the region’s sustainable land use (Indoitu et al. 2012). The increased dust storms in the Aral Sea area, particularly in the southwestern region of Uzbekistan, represent a challenge impacting human health (Groll et al. 2013). Some authors report that the worsening ecological situation in the Aral Sea zone has led to a prevalence of anemia and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction, as well as a high risk of developing urolithiasis in adults and increased infant mortality (Kaneko et al. 2002; Kunii et al. 2003; Crighton et al. 2011; Groll et al. 2013).
The 1–2 °C increase in the temperature that has occurred in Central Asia since the beginning of the twentieth century has led to impacts on agricultural production and land use practices (Lioubimtseva et al. 2005; Fischer et al. 2002). Climate warming is expected to aggravate the situation, resulting in decreasing snow and glacier reserves in the Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains, which are the only source of water for most of the irrigated croplands in the region (Aleksandrova et al. 2014). Transboundary water management conflicts have resulted in a decline in crop production (Rakhmatullaev et al. 2010a). The ongoing dispute between agriculture and hydropower with regards to water use has implications for the region’s sustainable development (Libert and Lipponen 2012). Varis (2014) noted that Central Asian countries have plenty of water relative to their populations but have a very low economic return on water compared with other parts of the world. For instance, Turkmenistan uses almost three times more water than India to produce one GDP dollar (Varis 2014; World Bank 2013). Some authors suggested that one way to achieve long-term sustainability in terms of agricultural land use in Central Asia was to switch from growing low-return crops on irrigated dry lands to a less water-intensive crop production system (Hamidov et al. 2007b; Bobojonov et al. 2013a; Varis 2014). However, it is important to emphasize that less water-intensive crops may not necessarily cover the cost of the huge and expensive irrigation and drainage system in Central Asia, and alternative crops may be integrated into the crop rotation program of these countries. Nonetheless, prior to achieving this status, the sustainability issues must be better understood.
In addition to the thorough understanding of the drivers for land use changes, including climate change, water conflicts, and resource degradation, policy makers (international and domestic institutions) and land managers need a comprehensive knowledge base regarding the impacts of agricultural land use on environmental, economic, and social dimensions of sustainable development. Research can provide this knowledge base at the highest quality level, as is guaranteed through the international peer-review system. By performing a meta-analysis of existing scientific literature, this knowledge base can be mined, and blind spots can be detected when the data are analyzed against all three dimensions—environmental, economic, and social—of sustainability.
The primary objective of this paper was to analyze the current international literature on agricultural land use in Central Asia and its relevance to sustainable development. We applied the Land Use Functions framework (Perez-Soba et al. 2008) to operationalize the concept of sustainable development in the context of agricultural land use. In particular, we examined the type and relative shares of environmental, economic, and social aspects in agricultural land use that were addressed in the literature. By building upon this review, we aimed to identify existing knowledge gaps and the need for future research on sustainable land use.
2.1 Study area
Central Asia is a dryland region, and the climate is continental with hot summers and cold winters (Mueller et al. 2014), particularly in the lowlands of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are located in the mountainous areas of Tien Shan and Pamir, respectively, with large differences in climatic conditions between the mountains and valleys. Approximately 90 % of Central Asia’s area receives less than 400 mm of rainfall per year: 191 mm in Turkmenistan, 264 mm in Uzbekistan, 344 mm in Kazakhstan, 533 mm in Kyrgyzstan, and up to 691 mm in the mountainous region of Tajikistan (Mueller et al. 2014). The annual potential evapotranspiration in the lowlands exceeds the annual rainfall, and thus, irrigation is required to cultivate agricultural crops.
Agricultural land covers approximately 2.8 million km2 or 70 % of the total land area (Lal 2007). Approximately 2.5 million km2 or 63 % of the total land is in rangelands, whereas approximately 0.3 million km2 or 7 % are croplands. Notably, of the 0.3 million km2, only 0.1 million km2 is under irrigation (Mueller et al. 2014). The irrigated land in Central Asia expanded dramatically during the Soviet Union’s active years, particularly in Uzbekistan, where the irrigated area tripled from 0.14 to 0.42 million km2 between the 1950s and 1990 (Khamraev et al. 2011).
The agricultural sector in Central Asia is undergoing re-organization. According to Suleimenov (2014), the following changes were made: During the time of the Soviet Union, each country specialized in certain agricultural strategies, with Kazakhstan in grain production; Kyrgyzstan in sheep production, alfalfa, and maize; and Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan producing as much irrigated cotton and karakul sheep for pelts as possible. During the transition time that followed, the development of the crop production industry began. In Kazakhstan, the cropland area was reduced significantly, and monoculture wheat production followed, with producers recently beginning to include food legumes such as dry peas and chickpeas. Kyrgyzstan specialized in alfalfa seed, potatoes, and maize. During the transition period, the wheat area was doubled. Dry beans under irrigation are now increasing in the current market economy. Tajikistan previously specialized in cotton production. The wheat area has doubled but has a low yield level. Turkmenistan now produces bread wheat at a respectable level, although this level is low for irrigated land. In Uzbekistan, self-sufficiency in bread wheat grain has been a major achievement of agricultural restructuring in recent years. Thus, the area under cotton has been reduced, and alfalfa and other forage crops have been removed from irrigated land. A cotton–alfalfa rotation has been replaced by a cotton–wheat rotation. Livestock and forage production has decreased in most Central Asian countries to a negligible level. However, the demand for food and forage is increasing. Poorly managed rangelands lead to a lack of feed, land degradation, a loss of plant biodiversity, and expanding desertification (Gintzburger et al. 2003). Consequently, researchers are now demanding a change in policies towards the support of rangeland improvement and integrated crop and livestock production (Suleimenov 2014).
With the exception of Kazakhstan, the primary water resources of the Central Asian countries are the melting waters of the Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains, which form the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are extremely dependent on water resources that come primarily from Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Thus, water distribution is a top political issue and novel methods and knowledge-based developments at a rural scale are necessary to overcome water scarcity and match the rising economic status of the area.
2.2 Land Use Functions: a framework for analyzing sustainable development
Since the Brundlandt Report, sustainable development has become a paradigm for policy making worldwide (WCED 1987). Decision-making that is oriented towards sustainable development requires knowledge and the simultaneous consideration of ecological, economic, and social dimensions. In the case of land use, the Land Use Functions framework helps to make the concept of sustainable development tangible and operational (Helming et al. 2011a). Land Use Functions are defined as “the goods and services provided by different land uses that summarize the most relevant environmental, economic and societal issues of a region” (Perez-Soba et al. 2008). The concept was developed to substantiate the concept of sustainable development with the concept of multifunctional land use and thereby simultaneously consider environmental, economic, and social aspects. This facilitates the assessment and governance of land use to promote sustainable development (Helming et al. 2011a).
The framework is designed such that for each of the three sustainability pillars, three categories are defined that together cover all the important functions of land use. The outcome is nine categories of so-called Land Use Functions: environmental: (1) abiotic, (2) biotic, and (3) ecosystem processes; economic: (4) land-based production, (5) market, and (6) transport/infrastructure; and social: (7) employment, (8) health, and (9) culture. Those nine function categories are generic and must be particularized according to the specific spatio-temporal and sustainability context to which they are applied. For instance, in China, food access and quality were identified as the primary issues related to social Land Use Function 8, namely “health” (König et al. 2014a), and in Europe, this function was related to recreation (Perez-Soba et al. 2008). When determined using adequate indicators and ranked in their relative importance for region-specific sustainable development, the Land Use Functions can be combined to support and evaluate policies (Paracchini et al. 2011). This framework has been applied for sustainability assessments and land use classification in China (Xie et al. 2010; König et al. 2014a), India (Purushothaman et al. 2013), various developing countries (König et al. 2013), and Europe (Helming et al. 2011b; Morris et al. 2011). The framework was also used in a literature review of sustainability issues related to land use in Inner Mongolia, China (König et al. 2014b). This scheme has yet to be applied to the context of Central Asian sustainable agricultural land use, and thus, we used Land Use Functions as the analytical framework for the literature analysis in this study.
2.3 Database search
We included scientific publications that addressed agricultural land use in Central Asia. A systematic database search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted using the electronic Web of Science. We selected only the international journal articles that stayed within the boundaries of internationally acceptable scientific quality management. This approach leaves out the analysis of, e.g., research results published in national publication formats, which might also be of very high information level. However, language barriers and the inaccessibility of “gray” literature created difficulty in the comprehensive analysis of the existing literature on agricultural land use.
All analyses were conducted between July and October 2014. The logic of our analysis was to view agricultural land use as the cause (pressure) and Land Use Functions as effects (impact). We therefore selected search terms that were relevant to agricultural land use and to Central Asian countries. The following thematic search terms were used: agriculture, farm, irrigation, land, land use, and water management. For geographic search keywords, we used Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Central Asia. The composite terms were placed inside inverted commas, and an asterisk was used at the end of each term capture all possible extensions and variations of a particular word. The documents were considered relevant if they matched at least one of the topical search terms and one of the geographic search terms in their titles, abstracts, or keywords.
The study period covered the 6 years from 2008 to 2013. The selection of this study period was driven by two considerations. First, the severe re-organizations of agricultural land use after independence required some time to settle before sustainability impacts could be analyzed. Second, there was a need to balance the comprehensiveness of the sampling and the workability within a reasonable time period. We selected this study period after first conducting an automated database search with the same search terms for the 1991–2013 time period to cover the entire period since independence. The results showed that almost two thirds (62 %) of the papers were published after 2008. We therefore selected 2008 as the starting year for the analysis. This year also coincides well with the publication date of the Land Use Functions framework by Perez-Soba et al. (2008), which we used for the analysis.
To compare the dynamics of agricultural land use publications in Central Asia with global dynamics, we also performed an automated database search using the same thematic terms for worldwide publications on agricultural land use during the same time period from 2008 to 2013.
Land Use Functions used in this study
Land Use Functions (LUFs)
Adapted to the study
LUF 1: Provision of abiotic resources
The role of land use in regulating the supply and quality of air, water, minerals, and soils
Physical and chemical properties of soils, water and air quality, water, and soil pollutants
LUF 2: Support and provision of biotic resources
The role of land use in regulating the capacity of the land to support biodiversity, in terms of the genetic diversity of organisms and the diversity of habitats
Habitats for fauna, flora, and other organisms
LUF 3: Maintenance of ecosystem processes
The role of land use in the regulation of ecosystem processes related to the production of food and fiber, the hydrological cycle and nutrient cycling, cultural services, and ecologically supportive functions, such as soil formation and carbon sequestration
Ecosystem services, land degradation, soil fertility, and arable lands
LUF 4: Land-based production
The role of land use for production activities that do not result in irreversible change, e.g., agriculture, forestry, renewable energy, and land-based industries, such as mining
Crop yields, value chains, and biomass production
LUF 5: Market and land-independent production
The role of land use in residential, social, and productive human activity occurring in a concentrated fashion. The utilization of this space is largely irreversible because of the nature of the activities
Market mechanisms, financial services, rural banks, and property rights on land
LUF 6: Transport/infrastructure
The role of land use in the provision of space used for roads, railways, and public transport services, which involve development that is largely irreversible
Implementation of large-scale water projects, management of irrigation infrastructure, and issues related to the transboundary water conveyances
LUF 7: Provision of work
The role of land in employment, the quality of jobs, job security, and the location of jobs (constraints, e.g., daily commuting)
Provision of job opportunities, income, and livelihood security
LUF 8: Human health and recreation (spiritual and physical)
The role of land use in health and recreational services and factors that influence service quality
Human health, nutrition, and food security
LUF 9: Cultural (landscape identity, scenery, and cultural heritage)
The role of land use for landscape aesthetics and quality and values associated with local culture
The use of the landscape for cultural heritage and diversity purposes. The issue of gender in land access
Under the economic dimension of sustainability, the study captured research related to land-based production such as crop yields, value-added chains, and biomass production (Land Use Function 4). The provision of financial services and access to rural banks for agricultural farm management, as well as land competition associated with agriculture, were coded under Land Use Function 5, “market- and land-independent production.” Research on the implementation of large-scale irrigation projects, the management of physical infrastructure, and issues related to transboundary water conveyances in relation to land use practices were included under Land Use Function 6, “transport/infrastructure.”
Finally, the social aspect of sustainability included the provision of job opportunities, income, and livelihood security in rural areas (Land Use Function 7), as well as concern about health-related diseases and malnutrition in the region (Land Use Function 8). The use of these landscapes for cultural heritage and the gender issues involved in accessing agricultural land were the primary concerns of Land Use Function 9.
To reveal the types of scientific methods used, we further analyzed the research methods of each paper. After a detailed review of each paper, we divided them into two categories: direct data analysis (stakeholder-involved analysis, monitoring, and in situ experiments) and indirect data analysis (including geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, modeling, and review analysis). Finally, the authors’ institutional affiliations were examined to determine which countries had been active with respect to agricultural land use research in Central Asia during the study period.
3 Results and discussion
Among the environmental aspects, the provision of abiotic resources and the maintenance of ecosystem services were most addressed. One hundred sixty-three articles (45 %) addressed the physical and chemical properties of soil and water quality in relation to agronomic activities, including the salinization of irrigated fields, particularly in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The largest number of papers (almost 50 % of the articles) raised concerns regarding ecosystem maintenance and addressed issues related to croplands and grasslands, ecology, and land degradation. The support and provision of biotic resources were least explored within the environmental dimensions of sustainability (23 % of papers). When addressing soil salinity, heavy metal analyses in the soils, and the regulation of water contamination through agricultural runoff, papers also targeted ecosystem services, the improvement of soil and land, and grassland management. We found that 117 papers discussed some aspects of abiotic resources and ecosystem maintenance simultaneously, thereby making use of a broader approach to ecosystem services. In terms of the support and provision of biotic resources with regards to habitats for fauna and flora and other organisms associated with the land capacity, we identified 35 papers that also addressed the economic dimension of agricultural land use, particularly land-based production. Here, the primary issue was the analysis of trade-offs between agronomic performance and biodiversity issues.
Among the economic factors, papers mostly addressed land-based production such as crop yields, value-added chains, and biomass production-related research (47 %), followed by water infrastructure (20 %). In the latter case, the reconstruction and rehabilitation of on-farm and inter-farm irrigation and drainage infrastructures were the primary concerns of most papers. Land-independent production, market mechanisms, financial services, and property rights issues played a minor role in the literature. Of the 362 papers, only 28 articles, corresponding to 7 %, addressed these issues. Dear et al. (2013) argued that in the context of Central Asia, researchers who address the socio-economic aspects of agriculture often do not include any connection to land use, land management, or ecosystem services.
When comparing the distribution of publications on the economic versus social dimensions of sustainable development, social sciences were underrepresented. The World Bank (2006) emphasized that the technical aspects of land management are more locally relevant in Central Asia once the basic “institutional” constraints are resolved. Among the publications that address the social aspects of land use, the highest number (55) addressed the provision of job opportunities for rural inhabitants, income, and livelihood security in relation to agricultural land use. Thirty-two articles presented research on the use of the landscape for cultural heritage and diversity purposes. Although the people in the region are experiencing significant health problems resulting from soil salinization and land degradation (Groll et al. 2013), only 14 articles (4 %) addressed the impacts of land use and degradation on human health. A detailed review of the health-related papers indicated that only three papers discussed some aspects of human health and recreational services in the Aral Sea areas of Central Asia. Of these, Bhaduri and Kloos (2013a) explored whether the water fees that were collected by a water users' association can be used to provide socio-economic benefits to its members. These benefits included the maintenance of health centers and schools and the provision of microcredit (Bhaduri and Kloos 2013a, b). Oberkircher et al. (2011a) explored the importance of the ecological and socio-cultural dimensions of Shurkul Lake, which was formed by transforming a forested landscape to an agricultural landscape. The results indicated that “the lake is part of local ecological knowledge, functions as a prestige object and recreational site, and is rooted in the religious beliefs of the population as a symbol of God’s benevolence” (Oberkircher et al. 2011a, b). Franz et al. (2010) assessed the economic viability of organic cotton produced in Uzbekistan. Their study compared a conventional cotton production system, which contributed to soil degradation, water depletion, and poor human health, with an integrated organic system in Western Uzbekistan. The results revealed that the higher profits achievable under an organic farming system could reduce the pressure on the environment and improve local livelihoods (Franz et al. 2010). Despite these three examples, the scientific evidence base related to the social aspects of land use is very limited, although it is of high societal relevance, particularly regarding the direct effects of salinization and dust storms on human health (Groll et al. 2013). This scientific base is also limited because the interactions between land use and human health are not always explicitly discussed. For instance, Crighton et al. (2011) concluded that human health problems were directly affected by the environmental disaster in the vicinity of the Aral Sea. However, the link with the land use was not explicitly described.
We analyzed the number of papers that covered more than one sustainability dimension to identify the prevalence of the use of an integrated, sustainability-related approach among these publications. One hundred and sixty-seven papers (approximately 46 %) addressed the Land Use Functions of at least two of the three dimensions of sustainable development. However, only 26 papers (approximately 7 %) covered all three dimensions of sustainable development simultaneously, meaning that these papers addressed at least one Land Use Function category from each dimension of sustainable development (environmental, economic, and social).
High-intensity, irrigated agriculture is more dominant in Uzbekistan (0.42 million km2) than in Kazakhstan (0.21 million km2) (Kienzler et al. 2012). Highly intensive agriculture is usually associated with a higher research input than low-intensity agriculture. In addition, Uzbekistan benefited from an extensive German research project on land and water resources that involved both local and international scholars. The project was implemented through the Center for Development Research (ZEF) at the University of Bonn from 2000 to 2011, with financial assistance from the German Ministry of Education and Research. In addition, the Central Asian office of the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) in Tashkent has been very active since the beginning of 2000 in promoting research activities in three countries of the Ferghana Valley (namely, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) to implement an integrated water resource management approach. Turkmenistan also has a considerable share of irrigated cropland with 0.18 million km2 (Kienzler et al. 2012), but there are few research papers relevant to this country (Fig. 5). When considering the relative shares of Land Use Functions per country, Fig. 5 clearly shows that papers relevant to Kazakhstan were more frequently concerned with biotic resources and biodiversity compared with other countries. This finding may be explained by the fact that much of Kazakhstan’s economic growth is currently driven by the oil and gas sectors (Petrick et al. 2014), with agriculture being one of the lowest GDP contributors to the national economy of Kazakhstan. Because of this country’s concern with the eradication of the Aral Sea disaster, its focus has shifted towards the restoration of wetlands and fisheries in the vicinity of the lake (World Bank 2010). Consequently, the role of land use in supporting biodiversity received more attention than economic functions.
When author institutional affiliations were examined, we found that approximately 87 % of all papers were published by international research groups. The data reveal that almost one third of the papers (135) were either individually or jointly authored by researchers affiliated with Germany. As mentioned elsewhere in this paper, this distribution is related to the long-term engagement of a German university in the region. These publications showed that the sustainable management of land and water resources in the Aral Sea area of Uzbekistan was the primary focus of the German research organization ZEF from 2000 to 2011. In particular, the ZEF project in the Aral Sea Basin was aimed at the economic and ecological restructuring of land and water use in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan by engaging local stakeholders in designing and implementing new innovative solutions (Martius et al. 2012). Only approximately 13 % of the publications were published by Central Asian authors, of which 7 % consisted of IWMI publications.
In the introduction to this paper, we highlighted four key issues in sustainable development that are affected by agricultural land use in Central Asia: (a) soil salinization and land degradation, (b) transboundary water management, (c) climate change, and (d) water use efficiency and the economic return on water use. In the case of soil salinity and land degradation, these factors were mostly addressed under the environmental dimension of sustainable development in relation to abiotic resources and ecosystem maintenance, respectively. These issues were found to be critical for the sustainable development of the Central Asia region because of the worsening situation in the vicinity of the Aral Sea (Dukhovny and Stulina 2001; Crighton et al. 2011). Present transboundary disputes over water management in the region are creating an increasingly challenging situation for the governments of these Central Asian nations that poses a threat to national water security and irrigated agriculture in the region. This literature analysis reflected this challenge: of the 73 papers related to the implementation of large-scale water projects, the management of irrigation infrastructure, and issues related to transboundary water conveyances, 29 articles focused on multinational aspects of water management. For instance, Libert and Lipponen (2012) investigated issues related to transboundary water resources in Central Asia and concluded that “the outdated legal framework for regional cooperation on shared waters requires improvement to help find sustainable long-term solutions for the reasonable and equitable use of shared water resources.” They highlight that reduced flows in transboundary rivers have led to land degradation and negative impact on ecosystems.
The effects of climate change in the region have adversely affected the availability of high-quality water and productive soil for agriculture (Krysanova et al. 2010; Qadir et al. 2013). Additionally, the increased frequency and intensity of droughts and floods might also be directly linked to the climate change in the region (Krysanova et al. 2010). The findings of reviews confirm the role on climate change as an important driver of sustainability impacts on agricultural land use. Climate change issues were at the forefront of many papers (43 papers or 12 %). This review indicated that climate change was primarily discussed in reference to water and soil quality, long-term ecosystem processes such as land degradation and grassland management and the availability of water for agriculture in the transboundary context. There was one publication by Kassam (2009) in which the author discussed the impacts of climate change on local culture, women, and sustainable livelihoods using the example of Tajikistan.
Growing competition between upstream hydropower and downstream irrigated agriculture is representative of the symptoms of water scarcity in Central Asia (Platonov et al. 2008a). Identifying approaches for the application appropriate water-saving techniques in agriculture is the key to sustainable water management in the region. Of the 28 papers that addressed the economic dimension of sustainability and market mechanisms specifically, 11 papers (representing only 3 % of the sample) described some links to the economic return on water use in agriculture. These papers made scientific recommendations for shifting towards economically viable crop production. However, very few papers provided specific evidence of the economic benefits that could be achieved based on numerical data. Therefore, future research should be devoted to this particular shortcoming.
We used the Land Use Functions framework for this research review to investigate sustainability issues related to agricultural land use in Central Asia. The framework was originally designed to assess land use changes in Europe by considering the three sustainability dimensions (environmental, economic, and social) (Perez-Soba et al. 2008). Subsequently, the framework was operationalized in the context of other countries, such as China and India (König et al. 2014a; Purushothaman et al. 2013). In Central Asia, only one study assessed the state of research on sustainable land management in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan using the Global Land Project analytical framework (Dear et al. 2013). In that study, Dear et al. (2013) covered the post-independence period from late 1991 to mid-2012 and investigated only the international academic literature published concerning Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and gray literature. By covering a different timeline and the complete geographical area of Central Asia and using a different analytical framework and different publication types, the current study furthers the scientific knowledge on sustainable land use.
This research revealed key knowledge gaps regarding the contribution of agricultural land use to sustainable development in Central Asia. The analysis focused exclusively on Web of Science-based peer-reviewed international journals covering the 2008–2013 period. All findings and conclusions were therefore restricted to this recent period of time and to internationally accessible publications. It is possible that earlier studies and/or domestic, non-internationally quality-validated publications contain information with the potential to fill some of the knowledge gaps identified here. However, the availability of and access to those studies represent a substantial barrier because of language concerns and non-standardized archiving methods. Given this limitation, the findings indicate that a comprehensive knowledge base is available concerning the impacts of agricultural land use on environmental issues, particularly those related to soil and water issues and to the maintenance of ecosystem processes. Little information was available about the relationships between agricultural land use and biotic resources, such as habitats for fauna and flora and other organisms. With respect to the economic aspects of agricultural land use, the research was focused on the direct economic return of biomass production and on infrastructure issues related to constructing and maintaining irrigation and drainage systems. Given that water scarcity is a key factor affecting agriculture in Central Asia, the economic returns on agricultural water use compared with those of other water uses should be emphasized in the future. The most striking finding was that very few papers addressed the impacts of agricultural land use on the societal dimension of sustainable development. This finding is in contrast to the abundant knowledge of human health concerns related to salinized water and the aspiration of dust-contaminated air. Clearly, the disciplinary research has somehow ignored the causal chain of events relating inappropriate irrigation management and water salinization to land degradation and dust storms through wind erosion. A more systemic, interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of agricultural land use impacts may help to overcome this limitation in the future.
This review revealed the underrepresentation of in situ research by means of collecting quantitative and/or qualitative data. Most papers were based on indirect research methods, such as remote sensing and mathematical modeling. Those methods also build upon a solid database for the ground-truthing of remotely sensed data and for the calibration and validation of model simulation. However, the specific understanding of the complexity of local socio-economic and political situations related to sustainable development requires in-depth case study research. This direction should clearly be prioritized in future research. Finally, the papers mostly focused on arable land use issues in the region, and the inclusion of pasture or rangelands in future studies could further provide a comprehensive overview of land use practices in both the lowlands and uplands of Central Asia.
Funding for this study was provided by the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) within the frame of a cross-disciplinary impact assessment project. Additionally, Ahmad Hamidov’s research for this paper benefited from the Volkswagen Foundation within the framework of the InDeCA project (Designing Social Institutions in Transition: Promotion of Institutional Development for Common Pool Resources Management in Central Asia). The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive critiques. The authors would also like to thank Jana Rummler and Claus Dalchow for their support in the Web of Science analysis and Till Hermanns, Azhar Abbas, and Carten Gutzler for their support in the data analysis.
- Abdullaev I (2014) Water-energy-agriculture and environment nexus in Central Asia: current state and future. Presentation from the World Water Week, Stockholm, Sweden. http://programme.worldwaterweek.org/sites/default/files/water-energy-food_and_environmental_nexus_in_central_asia.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb 2015
- Bucknall L, Klytchnikova I, Lampietti J, Lundell M, Scatasta M, Thurman M (2003) Irrigation in Central Asia: social economic and environmental considerations. World BankGoogle Scholar
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2012) FAOSTAT database. http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E. Accessed 21 Feb 2015
- Fischer G, Shah M, van Velthuizen H (2002) Climate change and agricultural vulnerability. Preprints. World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, p 160Google Scholar
- Gintzburger G, Toderich KN, Mardonov BK, Mahmudov MM (2003) Rangeland of the arid and semi-arid zones in Uzbekistan. JOUVE, Paris, France: CIRAD–ICARDA, pp. 426Google Scholar
- Hamidov A, Beltrao J, Neves A, Khaydarova V, Khamidov M (2007a) Apocynum lancifolium and Chenopodium album—potential species to remediate saline soils. WSEAS Trans Environ Dev 3(7):123–128Google Scholar
- Hamidov A, Beltrao J, Costa C, Khaydarova V, Sharipova S (2007b) Environmentally useful technique—Portulaca oleracea golden purslane as a salt removal species. WSEAS Trans Environ Dev 3(7):117–122Google Scholar
- Helming K, Diehl K, Bach H, Dilly O, König B, Kuhlman T, Pérez-Soba M, Sieber S, Tabbush P, Tscherning K, Wascher D, Wiggering H (2011a) Ex ante impact assessment of policies affecting land use, part A: analytical framework. Ecol Soc 16(1):27Google Scholar
- Helming K, Diehl K, Kuhlman T, Jansson T, Verburg PH, Bakker M, Perez-Soba M, Jones L, Johannes Verkerk P, Tabbush P, Breton Morris J, Drillet Z, Farrington J, LeMouël P, Zagame P, Stuczynski T, Siebielec G, Sieber S, Wiggering H (2011b) Ex ante impact assessment of policies affecting land use, part B: application of the analytical framework. Ecol Soc 16(1):29Google Scholar
- Khamraev Sh, Dukhovny VA, Kadyrov A, Sokolov V (2011) Water management of Uzbekistan. Scientific Information Centre of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination (SIC ICWC) of Central Asia. Tashkent, UzbekistanGoogle Scholar
- König HJ, Uthes S, Schuler J, Zhen L, Purushothaman S, Suarma U, Sghaier M, Makokha S, Helming K, Sieber S, Chen L, Brouwer F, Morris J, Wiggering H (2013) Regional impact assessment of land use scenarios in developing countries using the FoPIA approach: findings from five case studies. J Environ Manag 127:56–64. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.10.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Krysanova V, Dickens C, Timmerman J, Varela-Ortega C, Schlüter M, Roest K, Huntjens P, Jaspers F, Buiteveld H, Moreno E, de Pedraza CJ, Slamova R, Martinkova M, Blanco I, Esteve P, Pringle K, Pahl-Wostl C, Kabat P (2010) Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia. Water Resour Manag 24(14):4121–4160. doi:10.1007/s11269-010-9650-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martius C, Rudenko I, Lamers JPA, Vlek LG (2012) Cotton, water, salts and soums: economic and ecological restructuring in Khorezm, Uzbekistan. Springer, Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1963-7
- Morris JB, Tassone V, de Groot R, Camilleri M, Moncada S (2011) A framework for participatory impact assessment: involving stakeholders in European policy making, a case study of land use change in Malta. Ecol Soc 16(1):12Google Scholar
- Mueller L, Suleimenov M, Karimov A, Qadir M, Saparov A, Balgabayev N, Helming K, Lischeid D (2014) Land and water resources of Central Asia, their utilisation and ecological status. In: Mueller L, Saparov A, Lischeid G (eds.) Novel measurements and assessment tools for monitoring and management of land and water resources in agricultural landscapes of Central Asia. Environmental Science and Engineering, Springer, Switzerland: pp. 3–59. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01017-5_1Google Scholar
- Olcott M (1996) Central Asia’s new states: independence, foreign policy, and regional security. United States Institute of Peace Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Perez-Soba M, Petit S, Jones L, Bertrand N, Briquel V, Omodei-Zorini L, Contini C, Helming K, Farrington J, Mossello M, Wascher D, Kienast F, Groot R (2008) Land use functions—a multifunctionality approach to assess the impact of land use changes on land use sustainability. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany, pp 375–404. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-78648-1_19 Google Scholar
- Petrick M, Gramzow A, Oshakbaev D, Wandel J (2014) A policy agenda for agricultural development in Kazakhstan. IAMO Policy Brief No.15, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies, Halle (Saale), GermanyGoogle Scholar
- Platonov A, Thenkabail P, Biradar C, Cai X, Gumma M, Dheeravath V, Cohen Y, Alchanatis V, Goldshlager N, Ben-Dor E, Vithanage J, Manthrithilake H, Kendjabaev S, Isaev S (2008a) Water productivity mapping (WPM) using Landsat ETM plus data for the irrigated croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia. Sensor 8(12):8156–8180. doi:10.3390/s8128156 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Qushimov B, Ganiev IM, Rustamova I, Haitov B, Islam KR (2007) Land degradation by agricultural activities in Central Asia. In: Lal R, Suleimenov M, Stewart BA, Hansen DO, Doraiswamy P (eds) Climate change and terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 137–146. doi:10.1201/9780203932698.ch10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Suleimenov M (2014) Trends in the agriculture of Central Asia and implications for rangelands and croplands. In: Mueller L, Saparov A, Lischeid G (eds.) Novel measurements and assessment tools for monitoring and management of land and water resources in agricultural landscapes of Central Asia. Environmental Science and Engineering, Springer, Switzerland: pp. 91–105. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01017-5_4Google Scholar
- Toderich K, Tsukatani T, Black C, Takabe K, Katayama Y (2002) Adaptations of plants to metal/salt contaminated environments: glandular structures and salt excretion. http://ipec.utulsa.edu/Conf2002/toderich_katayama.pdf. Accessed 13 Feb 2015
- WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) (1987) Our common future. Oxford University Press, New York, United StatesGoogle Scholar
- World Bank (2006) Sustainable land management: challenges, opportunities and tradeoffs. Washington, DC: United States. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/7132. Accessed 13 Feb 2015
- World Bank (2010) Water and development: an evaluation of World Bank support, 1997–2007. Washington, DC, United StatesGoogle Scholar
- World Bank (2013) World development indicators. Washington, DC: United States. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/WDI-2013-ebook.pdf. Accessed 30 June 2015
References of the meta-analysis
- Aierken Y, Akashi Y, Phan TPN, Halidan Y, Tanaka K, Long B, Nishida H, Long CL, Wu MZ, Kato K (2011) Molecular analysis of the genetic diversity of Chinese hami melon and its relationship to the melon germplasm from Central and South Asia. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 80(1):52–65. doi:10.2503/jjshs1.80.52 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Astanakulov KD, Karimov YZ, Fozilov G (2011) Design of a grain cleaning machine for small farms. Agric Mech Asia Afr Lat Am 42(4):37–40Google Scholar
- Aydingun A, Yildirim E (2010) Perception of homeland among Crimean Tatars: cases from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Crimea. Bilig 54:21–46Google Scholar
- Balapanova E, Nurgabylov M (2012) Effects of innovation processes on increasing the investment attractiveness of Kazakhstan's agriculture. Actual Probl Econ 138:293–300Google Scholar
- Bernauer T, Siegfried T (2008) Compliance and performance in international water agreements: the case of the Naryn/Syr Darya Basin. Glob Gov 14(4):479–501Google Scholar
- Bezborodov GA, Shadmanov DK, Mirhashimov RT, Yuldashev T, Qureshi AS, Noble AD, Qadir M (2010) Mulching and water quality effects on soil salinity and sodicity dynamics and cotton productivity in Central Asia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 138(1–2):95–102. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2010.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bobojonov I, Lamers JPA, Bekchanov M, Djanibekov N, Franz-Vasdeki J, Ruzimov J, Martius C (2013b) Options and constraints for crop diversification: a case study in sustainable agriculture in Uzbekistan. Agroecol Sustain Food Syst 37(7):788–811. doi:10.1080/21683565.2013.775539 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bondarenko DA, Peregontsev EA (2012) Results of studying the feeding of Central Asian tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii). Zool Zhurnal 91(11):1397–1410Google Scholar
- Borisov SN (2009) Pattern of dragonfly (Odonata) distribution in Central Asia. Zool Zhurnal 88(1):11–17Google Scholar
- Bourgault M, Madramootoo CA, Webber HA, Dutilleul P, Stulina G, Horst MG, Smith DL (2013) Legume production and irrigation strategies in the Aral Sea Basin: yield, yield components, water relations and crop development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). J Agron Crop Sci 199(4):241–252. doi:10.1111/jac.12016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cai XL, Thenkabail PS, Biradar CM, Platonov A, Gumma M, Dheeravath V, Cohen Y, Goldlshleger N, Ben-Dor E, Alchanatis V, Vithanage J, Markandu A (2009) Water productivity mapping using remote sensing data of various resolutions to support "more crop per drop". J Appl Remote Sens 3:23. doi:10.1117/1.3257643 Google Scholar
- Chen FH, Chen JH, Holmes J, Boomer I, Austin P, Gates JB, Wang NL, Brooks SJ, Zhang JW (2010) Moisture changes over the last millennium in arid Central Asia: a review, synthesis and comparison with monsoon region. Quat Sci Rev Rev 29(7–8):1055–1068. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Daribaeva A, Shulenbaeva F, Zholmukhanova A (2012) Actual problems of insurance in agriculture of Kazakhstan. Actual Probl Econ 135(9):284–291Google Scholar
- Devkota KP, Manschadi A, Lamers JPA, Devkota M, Vlek PLG (2013a) Mineral nitrogen dynamics in irrigated rice-wheat system under different irrigation and establishment methods and residue levels in arid drylands of Central Asia. Eur J Agron 47:65–76. doi:10.1016/j.eja.2013.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Devkota KP, Manschadi AM, Devkota M, Lamers JPA, Ruzibaev E, Egamberdiev O, Amiri E, Vlek PLG (2013b) Simulating the impact of climate change on rice phenology and grain yield in irrigated drylands of Central Asia. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 52(9):2033–2050. doi:10.1175/jamc-d-12-0182.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Devkota KP, Manschadi AM, Lamers JPA, Humphreys E, Devkota M, Egamberdiev O, Gupta RK, Sayre KD, Vlek PLG (2013c) Growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under resource conservation technologies in the irrigated drylands of Central Asia. Field Crops Res 149:115–126. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2013.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Devkota M, Martius C, Lamers JPA, Sayre KD, Devkota KP, Gupta RK, Egamberdiev O, Vlek PLG (2013d) Combining permanent beds and residue retention with nitrogen fertilization improves crop yields and water productivity in irrigated arid lands under cotton, wheat and maize. Field Crops Res 149:105–114. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2013.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dubovyk O, Menz G, Conrad C, Kan E, Machwitz M, Khamzina A (2013a) Spatio-temporal analyses of cropland degradation in the irrigated lowlands of Uzbekistan using remote-sensing and logistic regression modeling. Environ Monit Assess 185(6):4775–4790. doi:10.1007/s10661-012-2904-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Egamberdieva D, Kucharova Z (2008) Cropping effects on microbial population and nitrogenase activity in saline arid soil. Turk J Biol 32(2):85–90Google Scholar
- Eisfelder C, Kuenzer C, Dech S, Buchroithner MF (2013) Comparison of two remote sensing based models for regional net primary productivity estimation—a case study in semi-arid Central Kazakhstan. IEEE J Sel Top Appl Earth Observ Remote Sens 6(4):1843–1856. doi:10.1109/jstars.2012.2226707 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ewald J, Maart SC, Musshoff O (2012) Measuring the subjective risk attitude of decision-makers: are there differences between groups of methods and of persons? Ger J Agric Econ 61(3):148–161Google Scholar
- Gaiser T, Printz A, von Raumer HGS, Gotzinger J, Dukhovny VA, Barthel R, Sorokin A, Tuchin A, Kiourtsidis C, Ganoulis I, Stahr K (2008) Development of a regional model for integrated management of water resources at the basin scale. Phys Chem Earth 33(1–2):175–182. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2007.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Giraudoux P, Raoul F, Afonso E, Ziadinov I, Yang YR, Li L, Li TY, Quere JP, Feng XH, Wang Q, Wen H, Ito A, Craig PS (2013) Transmission ecosystems of echinococcus multilocularis in China and Central Asia. Parasitology 140(13):1655–1666. doi:10.1017/s0031182013000644 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Granit J, Jagerskog A, Lindstrom A, Bjorklund G, Bullock A, Lofgren R, de Gooijer G, Pettigrew S (2012) Regional options for addressing the water, energy and food nexus in Central Asia and the Aral Sea basin. Int J Water Resour Dev 28(3):419–432. doi:10.1080/07900627.2012.684307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hirsch D, Abrami G, Giordano R, Liersch S, Matin N, Schluter M (2010) Participatory research for adaptive water management in a transition country—a case study from Uzbekistan. Ecol Soc 15(3):33Google Scholar
- Jamal SM, Ferrari G, Hussain M, Nawroz AH, Aslami AA, Khan E, Murvatulloev S, Ahmed S, Belsham GJ (2012) Detection and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings. Transbound Emerg Dis 59(5):429–440. doi:10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01295.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kabdullina G (2012) Key directions for efficiency increase in agricultural production. Actual Probl Econ 138(12):381–388Google Scholar
- Konuspayeva G, Faye B, Loiseau G, Narmuratova M, Ivashchenko A, Meldebekova A, Davletov S (2010) Physiological change in camel milk composition (Camelus dromedarius) 2: physico-chemical composition of colostrum. Trop Anim Health Prod 42(3):501–505. doi:10.1007/s11250-009-9450-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kracalik IT, Blackburn JK, Lukhnova L, Pazilov Y, Hugh-Jones ME, Aikimbayev A (2012) Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi*) and morphology cluster statistics. Geospatial Health 7(1):111–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Krysanova V, Buiteveld H, Haase D, Hattermann FF, van Niekerk K, Roest K, Martinez-Santos P, Schluter M (2008) Practices and lessons learned in coping with climatic hazards at the river-basin scale: floods and droughts. Ecol Soc 13(2):20Google Scholar
- Litvinchuk SN, Mazepa GO, Pasynkova RA, Saidov A, Satorov T, Chikin YA, Shabanov DA, Crottini A, Borkin LJ, Rosanov JM, Stock M (2011) Influence of environmental conditions on the distribution of Central Asian green toads with three ploidy levels. J Zool Syst Evol Res 49(3):233–239. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2010.00612.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Low F, Navratil P, Kotte K, Scholer HF, Bubenzer O (2013b) Remote-sensing-based analysis of landscape change in the desiccated seabed of the Aral Sea—a potential tool for assessing the hazard degree of dust and salt storms. Environ Monit Assess 185(10):8303–8319. doi:10.1007/s10661-013-3174-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Magalon H, Patin E, Austerlitz F, Hegay T, Aldashev A, Quintana-Murci L, Heyer E (2008) Population genetic diversity of the nat2 gene supports a role of acetylation in human adaptation to farming in Central Asia. Eur J Hum Genet 16(2):243–251. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201963 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malakhov DV, Dyke GJ, King C (2009) Remote sensing applied to paleontology: exploration of Upper Cretaceous sediments in Kazakhstan for potential fossil sites. Palaeontol Electron 12(2):10Google Scholar
- Martinez-Cruz B, Vitalis R, Segurel L, Austerlitz F, Georges M, Thery S, Quintana-Murci L, Hegay T, Aldashev A, Nasyrova F, Heyer E (2011) In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations. Eur J Hum Genet 19(2):216–223. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.153 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Massacci A, Nabiev SM, Pietrosanti L, Nematov SK, Chernikova TN, Thor K, Leipner J (2008) Response of the photosynthetic apparatus of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to the onset of drought stress under field conditions studied by gas-exchange analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Plant Physiol Biochem 46(2):189–195. doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2007.10.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Matthys B, Bobieva M, Karimova G, Mengliboeva Z, Jean-Richard V, Hoimnazarova M, Kurbonova M, Lohourignon LK, Utzinger J, Wyss K (2011) Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan. Parasit Vectors 4:13. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-195 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Molinar RH (2012) Evaluation of Central Asian melon varieties in the San Joaquin Valley. J Am Pomol Soc 66(3):122–124Google Scholar
- Narama C, Duishonakunov M, Kaab A, Daiyrov M, Abdrakhmatov K (2010a) The 24 july 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10(4):647–659. doi:10.5194/nhess-10-647-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Narama C, Kaab A, Duishonakunov M, Abdrakhmatov K (2010b) Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (similar to 1970), Landsat (similar to 2000), and ALOS (similar to 2007) satellite data. Glob Planet Chang 71(1–2):42–54. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Newcomb M, Acevedo M, Bockelman HE, Brown-Guedira G, Goates BJ, Jackson EW, Jin Y, Njau P, Rouse MN, Singh D, Wanyera R, Bonman JM (2013) Field resistance to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust pathogen in spring wheat landraces. Plant Dis 97(7):882–890. doi:10.1094/pdis-02-12-0200-re CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nurzhanovna AG (2012) World practice and development history of cotton-growing in Kazakhstan. Actual Probl Econ 127(8):342–351Google Scholar
- Oberhansli H, Novotna K, Piskova A, Chabrillat S, Nourgaliev DK, Kurbaniyazov AK, Matys Grygar T (2011) Variability in precipitation, temperature and river runoff in W Central Asia during the past similar to 2000 yrs. Glob Planet Chang 76(1–2):95–104. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Obertreis J (2008) The "attack on the desert" in Central Asia—on the environmental history of the Soviet Union. Osteuropas 58(4–5):37Google Scholar
- Passmore DG, Harrison S, Winchester V, Rae A, Severskiy I, Pimankina NV (2008) Late Holocene debris flows and valley floor development in the northern Zailiiskiy Alatau, Tien Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan. Arct Antarct Alp Res 40(3):548–560. doi:10.1657/1523-0430(06-078)[passmore]2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Platonov A, Thenkabail PS, Biradar CM, Cai XL, Gumma M, Dheeravath V, Cohen Y, Alchanatis V, Goldshlager N, Ben-Dor E, Vithanage J, Manthrithilake H, Kendjabaev S, Isaev S (2008b) Water productivity mapping (WPM) using Landsat ETM+ data for the irrigated croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia. Sensors 8(12):8156–8180. doi:10.3390/s8128156 PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Richards CM, Volk GM, Reeves PA, Reilley AA, Henk AD, Forsline PL, Aldwinckle HS (2009) Selection of stratified core sets representing wild apple (Malus sieversii). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 134(2):228–235Google Scholar
- Rudaya N, Tarasov P, Dorofeyuk N, Solovieva N, Kalugin I, Andreev A, Daryin A, Diekmann B, Riedel F, Tserendash N, Wagner M (2009) Holocene environments and climate in the Mongolian Altai reconstructed from the Hoton-Nur pollen and diatom records: a step towards better understanding climate dynamics in Central Asia. Quat Sci Rev Rev 28(5–6):540–554. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.10.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rudenko I, Grote U, Lamers JPA, Martius C (2008) Add value, save water—increasing efficiency in the Uzbekistan cotton sector. Osteuropas 58(4–5):407Google Scholar
- Scheer C, Wassmann R, Klenzler K, Lbragimov N, Eschanov R (2008b) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Aral Sea Basin, Uzbekistan: influence of nitrogen applications and irrigation practices. Soil Biol Biochem 40(2):290–301. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schluter M, Herrfahrdt-Pahle E (2011) Exploring resilience and transformability of a river basin in the face of socioeconomic and ecological crisis: an example from the Amudarya river basin, Central Asia. Ecol Soc 16(1):19Google Scholar
- Schluter M, Khasankhanova G, Talskikh V, Taryannikova R, Agaltseva N, Joldasova I, Ibragimov R, Abdullaev U (2013) Enhancing resilience to water flow uncertainty by integrating environmental flows into water management in the Amudarya river, Central Asia. Glob Planet Chang 110:114–129. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Siegmund-Schultze M, Rischkowsky B, Yuldashev I, Abdalniyazov B, Lamers JPA (2013) The emerging small-scale cattle farming sector in Uzbekistan: highly integrated with crop production but suffering from low productivity. J Arid Environ 98:93–104. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2013.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sommer R, Glazirina M, Yuldashev T, Otarov A, Ibraeva M, Martynova L, Bekenov M, Kholov B, Ibragimov N, Kobilov R, Karaev S, Sultonov M, Khasanova F, Esanbekov M, Mavlyanov D, Isaev S, Abdurahimov S, Ikramov R, Shezdyukova L, de Pauw E (2013) Impact of climate change on wheat productivity in Central Asia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 178:78–99. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2013.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Takata Y, Funakawa S, Yanai J, Mishima A, Akshalov K, Ishida N, Kosaki T (2008b) Influence of crop rotation system on the spatial and temporal variation of the soil organic carbon budget in northern Kazakhstan. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 54(1):159–171. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00217.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thenkabail PS, Mariotto I, Gumma MK, Middleton EM, Landis DR, Huemmrich KF (2013) Selection of Hyperspectral Narrowbands (HNBs) and composition of Hyperspectral Twoband Vegetation Indices (HVIs) for biophysical characterization and discrimination of crop types using field reflectance and Hyperion/EO-1 data. IEEE J Sel Top Appl Earth Observ Remote Sens 6(2):427–439. doi:10.1109/jstars.2013.2252601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thevs N, Zerbe S, Kyosev Y, Rozi A, Tang B, Abdusalih N, Novitskiy Z (2012) Apocynum venetum L. and Apocynum pictum Schrenk (Apocynaceae) as multi-functional and multi-service plant species in Central Asia: a review on biology, ecology, and utilization. J Appl Bot Food Qual 85(2):159–167Google Scholar
- Tischbein B, Manschadi AM, Hornidge AK, Conrad C, Lamers JPA, Oberkircher L, Schorcht G, Vlek PLG (2011) Proposals for the more efficient utilization of water resources in the province of Khorezm, Uzbekistan. Hydrol Wasserbewirtsch 55(2):116–125Google Scholar
- Tischbein B, Manschadi AM, Conrad C, Hornidge AK, Bhaduri A, Ul Hassan M, Lamers JPA, Awan UK, Vlek PLG (2013) Adapting to water scarcity: constraints and opportunities for improving irrigation management in Khorezm, Uzbekistan. Water Sci Technol-Water Supply 13(2):337–348. doi:10.2166/ws.2013.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vintro LL, Mitchell PI, Omarova A, Burkitbayev M, Napoles HJ, Priest ND (2009) Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan. J Environ Radioact 100(4):308–314. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vyshpolsky F, Qadir M, Karimov A, Mukhamedjanov K, Bekbaev U, Paroda R, Aw-Hassan A, Karajeh F (2008) Enhancing the productivity of high-magnesium soil and water resources in Central Asia through the application of phosphogypsum. Land Degrad Dev 19(1):45–56. doi:10.1002/ldr.814 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vyshpolsky F, Mukhamedjanov K, Bekbaev U, Ibatullin S, Yuldashev T, Noble AD, Mirzabaev A, Aw-Hassan A, Qadir M (2010) Optimizing the rate and timing of phosphogypsum application to magnesium-affected soils for crop yield and water productivity enhancement. Agric Water Manag 97(9):1277–1286. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2010.02.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yerzhanova S, Huszti Z (2013) Conditions and opportunities of environment management of a problematic lake: possible control over the change of the natural condition of the Ilibalkhash basin. Carpath J Earth and Environ Sci 8(4):115–124Google Scholar
- Yousefkhani SSH, Ficetola GF, Rastegar-Pouyani N, Ananjeva NB, Rastegar-Pouyani E, Masroor R (2013) Environmental suitability and distribution of the Caucasian rock agama, Paralaudakia caucasia (Sauna: Agamidae) in Western and Central Asia. Asian Herpetol Res 4(3):207–213. doi:10.3724/sp.j.1245.2013.00207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yuldasheva NK, Ul'chenko NT, Bekker NP, Chernenko TV, Glushenkova AI, Mustaev FA, Ionov MV, Heuer B (2011a) Oil content and lipid composition of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) irrigated with saline water under greenhouse and field conditions. Ann Appl Biol 159(2):169–177. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2011.00490.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang YJ, Stock M, Zhang P, Wang XL, Zhou H, Qu LH (2008) Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia. Genetica 134(3):353–365. doi:10.1007/s10709-008-9243-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar