First evidence for a target site mutation in the EPSPS2 gene in glyphosate-resistant Sumatran fleabane from citrus orchards
- 395 Downloads
The glyphosate herbicide has been extensively used for long time periods in woody crops to control a broad range of weeds. The rapid determination of resistant weeds in different woody crops could maintain the efficacy of herbicides and could improve weed management using rotating strategies. Unfortunately Sumatran fleabane has developed a resistance to glyphosate. The mechanism of resistance of Sumatran fleabane is unknown so far. Therefore, here, we studied the resistance of a Sumatran fleabane biotype collected from a citrus orchard, under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. Our results show a resistance factor of 7.4. The resistant biotype absorbed and translocated lower amounts of 14C-glyphosate compared to the susceptible biotype. Moreover, at the molecular level, the target site sequence of the EPSPS2 gene showed a Pro-182-Thr substitution in the resistant biotype. As a consequence, this biotype uses mechanisms of reduced absorption–translocation and target site mutation to resist against glyphosate. This is the first study to report the reduced absorption and a mutation in the EPSPS2 gene in the resistance mechanism in the Conyza genus.
KeywordsGlyphosate resistance Conyza sumatrensis Absorption Translocation EPSPS2 Target site mutation Resistance mechanism
The Monsanto Company and Spain’s MICINN Project (AGL2010-16774) supported this research. The authors thank Professor Fernando Bastida from Huelva University for his help in improving this manuscript and to Rafael Roldán-Gómez and Isabel M. Algaba García for technical assistance.
- Carretero JL (2004) Flora arvense Española. Las malas hierbas de los cultivos Españoles. Phytoma, ValenciaGoogle Scholar
- Cromartie TH, Polge ND (2000) An improved assay for shikimic acid and its use as a monitor for the activity of sulfosate. Proc Weed Sci Soc Am 40:291Google Scholar
- Franz JE, Mao MK, Sikorski JA (1997) Glyphosate: a unique global herbicide. ACS, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Ge X, D'Avignon DA, Ackerman JJH, Collavo A, Sattin M, Ostrander EL, Hall EL, Sammons RD, Preston C (2012) Vacuolar glyphosate-sequestration correlates with glyphosate resistance in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) from Australia, South America, and Europe: a 31P NMR investigation. J Agric Food Chem 60:1243–1250. doi: 10.1021/jf203472s PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heap I (2013) International survey of herbicide resistant weeds. http://www.weedscience.org. Accessed 16 Feb 2013
- Nol N, Tsikou D, Eid M, Livieratos IC, Giannopolitis CN (2012) Shikimate leaf disc assay for early detection of glyphosate resistance in Conyza canadensis and relative transcript levels of EPSPS and ABC transporter genes. Weed Res 52:233–241. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2012.00911.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pline WA, Wilcut JW, Duke SO, Edmisten KL, Wells R (2002) Tolerance and accumulation of shikimic acid in response to glyphosate applications in glyphosate-resistant and nonglyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). J Agric Food Chem 50:506–512. doi: 10.1021/jf0110699 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Recasens J, Conesa JA (2009) Malas hierbas en plántula: guía de identificación. Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida. Lleida, EspañaGoogle Scholar