Effects of Chlorella sp. on biological characteristics of the honey bee Apis mellifera
- 134 Downloads
We tested the effect of Chlorella sorokiniana, a green, unicellular, freshwater alga, provided as a food supplement on several biological characteristics of the honey bee Apis mellifera. Chlorella was applied as (1) a moisturized powder, (2) a sugar-water solution, or (3) mixed with honey-sugar candy. All three applications were well accepted by the bees. We observed a positive effect of Chlorella on colony development, and also on basic aspects of metabolism, such as increased fat deposition and vitellogenin transcript levels, and a decrease in TOR and InR2 transcript levels. The effect of Chlorella on other characteristics was lower (protein levels) or even null (total fat body mass, level of adipokinetic hormone). Application of Chlorella modulated the hypopharyngeal gland size, and the activity of basic digestive enzymes in the bee midgut. Our observations suggest that the nutritional composition of Chlorella might be an appropriate dietary supplement for honey bees.
KeywordsA. mellifera chlorella nutrients longevity AKH
The authors thank Mrs. H. Štěrbová for her technical assistance. The English grammar and stylistics were checked by the Editage Author Services.
RČF, DK, and TJ conceived this research and designed experiments; TJ participated in the design and interpretation of the data; TJ, JK, MS, AT, VK, and JD performed experiments and analysis; RČF and DK wrote the paper and participated in the revisions of it. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was supported by grant no. LTAUSA17116 Inter Action from Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic, by project Strategy AV21, Diversity of Life and Health of Ecosystems.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Arrese, E.L. and Wells, M.A. (1994) Purification and properties of a phosphorylatable triacylglycerol lipase from the fat body of an insect, Manduca sexta. J Lipid Res 35, 1652–1660. Google Scholar
- Di Pasquale, G., Salignon, M., Le Conte, Y., Belzunces, L.P., Decourtye, A., et al. (2013) Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: Do pollen quality and diversity matter? PLoS One 8, 1–13Google Scholar
- Downer R.G.H. (1985). Lipid metabolism. Pp. 77–113 in G.A.Kerkut and L.I. Gilbert, eds. Comprehensive Insect Bio-chemistry, Physiology and Pharmacology. Vol. 10. Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
- Eremia, N., Zagareanu, A., Mardari, T., Modvala, S. (2013) Stimulation of Resistance of Bee Families during Wintering. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 46, 268–271Google Scholar
- Hsu, C., Chuang, Y., Chan, Y. (2014) Changes in cellular degradation activity in young and old worker honeybees (Apis mellifera). EXG 50, 128–136Google Scholar
- Kodrík D. (2008) Adipokinetic hormone functions that are not associated with insect flight. Physiol. Entomol. 33, 171–180. Google Scholar
- Kodrík D., Bednářová D., Zemanová Z., Krishnan N., (2015) Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects—An Update. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16(10), 25788–25816Google Scholar
- Lorenz M.W., Kellner R., Woodring J., Hoffmann K.H., Gäde G., (1999) Hypertrehalosaemic peptides in the honeybee (Apis mellifera): purification, identification and function. Journal of Insect Physiology 45(7), 647–653Google Scholar
- Lorenz, M.W. (2001). Synthesis of lipid in the fat body of Gryllus bimaculatus: age–dependency and regulation by adipokinetic hormone. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 47, 198–214Google Scholar
- Marchal, E., Schellens, S., Monjon, E., Bruyninckx, E., Marco, H.G. et al. (2018). Analysis of peptide ligand specificity of different insect adipokinetic hormone receptors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19 Google Scholar
- Patel, A., Fondrk, M.K., Kaftanoglu, O., Emore, C., Hunt, G., Frederick, K., Amdam, G. V. (2007) The making of a queen: TOR pathway is a key player in diphenic caste development. PLoS One 1–7.Google Scholar
- Socha, R., Kodrík, D., Šimek, P., Patočková, M. (2004) The kind of AKH-mobilized energy substrates in insects can be predicted without a knowledge of the hormone structure. Eur. J. Entomol. 101, 1210–5759Google Scholar
- Standifer, L.N., Moeller, F.E., Kauffeld, N.M., Herbert, E. W. J, Shimanuki, H. (1978). Supplemental feeding of honey bee colonies. United States Dep. Agric. Agric. Inf. Bull. 413, 1–8Google Scholar
- Stanfel, M.N., Shamieh, L.S., Kaeberlein, M., K, K.B. (2009). The TOR pathway comes of age. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1790, 1067–1074Google Scholar
- Stoscheck, C.M. (1990) Quantitation of protein. Methods Enzymol. 182, 50–68Google Scholar
- Winston, M.L. (1987). The Biology of the Honey Bee. Harward University Press, Cambridge, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar