A scientific note on using large mixed sperm samples in instrumental insemination of honeybee queens
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Keywordsartificial insemination bee breeding Apis mellifera homogenous mixing genetic diversity
Financial support was granted by the Brandenburg State Agency for Rural Development, Agriculture and Land Consolidation to the HOSIMET (Homogenous sperm mixing technology in Europe-wide Varroa Tolerance Breeding) breeding program (State association of Buckfast beekeepers Berlin-Brandenburg e.V.). Further, we thank C. Orzessek and P. Leibe for help with the lab work, and H.M.G. Lattorff for sharing data on primer polymorphism and heterozygosity across several Apis mellifera sub-species.
JPvP, JB, RFAM and SE conceived this research; JTP, RFAM and SE interpreted the data; JTP and SE performed experiments and analysis; All authors wrote the paper and participated in the revisions of it.
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