, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 88–105 | Cite as

Towards a sustainable management of bees of the subgenus Osmia (Megachilidae; Osmia) as fruit tree pollinators

Review article


The limited pollination efficiency of honeybees (Apidae; Apis) for certain crop plants and, more recently, their global decline fostered commercial development of further bee species to complement crop pollination in agricultural systems. In particular, a number of mason bees (Megachilidae; Osmia) are among the most widely used alternative pollinators, and their utilisation has been fine-tuned specifically for pollination in fruit tree orchards. A successful management system should not only aim at optimising pollination efficiency but also consider the relevant biological and ecological requirements to achieve sustainable and healthy bee populations. Here, we review the factors influencing the rate of population increase during the implementation of Osmia bees as orchard pollinators. These factors include nesting material, release methods, and control of antagonists as well as methods optimising management of developmental stages to synchronize bee activity with orchard bloom and to minimize developmental mortality.


orchard pollination alternative pollinator Osmia fruit trees 


  1. Abel, C.A., Wilson, R.L. (1998) The use of diverse plant species for increasing Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in field cages. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 71(1), 23–28Google Scholar
  2. Adamson, N.L., Roulston, T.H., Fell, R.D., Mullins, D.E. (2012) From April to August-wild bees pollinating crops through the growing season in Virginia. USA. Environ. Entomol. 41(4), 813–821Google Scholar
  3. Alaux, C., Brunet, J.-L., Dussaubat, C., Mondet, F., Tchamitchan, S., Cousin, M., Brillard, J., Baldy, A., Belzunces, L.P., Le Conte, Y. (2010) Interactions between Nosema microspores and a neonicotinoid weaken honeybees (Apis mellifera). Environ. Microbiol. 12(3), 774–782PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Artz, D.R., Allan, M.J., Wardell, G.I., Pitts-Singer, T.L. (2013) Nesting site density and distribution affects Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) reproductive success and almond yield in a commercial orchard. Insect Conserv. Diver. doi:10.1111/icad.12026 Google Scholar
  5. Bohart, G.E. (1972) Management of wild bees for pollination of crops. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 17, 287–312Google Scholar
  6. Bosch, J. (1992) Parasitism in wild and managed populations of the almond pollinator Osmia cornuta Latr (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Apic. Res. 31(2), 77–82Google Scholar
  7. Bosch, J. (1994a) Improvement of field management of Osmia cornuta (Latreille) (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) to pollinate almond. Apidologie 25(1), 71–83Google Scholar
  8. Bosch, J. (1994b) Osmia cornuta Latr (Hym, Megachilidae) as a potential pollinator in almond orchards—releasing methods and nest–hole length. J. Appl. Entomol. 117(2), 151–157Google Scholar
  9. Bosch, J. (1994c) The nesting-behavior of the mason bee Osmia cornuta (Latr) with special reference to its pollinating potential (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Apidologie 25(1), 84–93Google Scholar
  10. Bosch, J. (1995) Comparison of nesting materials for the orchard pollinator Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Entomol. Gen. 19(4), 285–289Google Scholar
  11. Bosch, J. (2008) Production of undersized offspring in a solitary bee. Anim. Behav. 75, 809–816Google Scholar
  12. Bosch, J., Blas, M. (1994a) Effect of over-wintering and incubation temperatures on adult emergence in Osmia cornuta Latr (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Apidologie 25(3), 265–277Google Scholar
  13. Bosch, J., Blas, M. (1994b) Foraging behavior and pollinating efficiency of Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera on almond (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae and Apidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 29(1), 1–9Google Scholar
  14. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P. (1999) Exceptional cherry production in an orchard pollinated with blue orchard bees. Bee World 80(4), 163–173Google Scholar
  15. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P. (2000) Development and emergence of the orchard pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Environ. Entomol. 29(1), 8–13Google Scholar
  16. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P. (2001) How to manage the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria, as an orchard pollinator. Sustainable Agriculture Network, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  17. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P. (2002) Developing and establishing bee species as crop pollinators: the example of Osmia spp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and fruit trees. B Entomol Res 92(1), 3–16Google Scholar
  18. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P. (2003) Effect of wintering duration and temperature on survival and emergence time in males of the orchard pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Environ. Entomol. 32(4), 711–716Google Scholar
  19. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P. (2004) Effect of pre-wintering and wintering temperature regimes on weight loss, survival, and emergence time in the mason bee Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Apidologie 35(5), 469–479Google Scholar
  20. Bosch, J., Vicens, N. (2005) Sex allocation in the solitary bee Osmia cornuta: do females behave in agreement with Fisher’s theory? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 59(1), 124–132Google Scholar
  21. Bosch, J., Vicens, N. (2006) Relationship between body size, provisioning rate, longevity and reproductive success in females of the solitary bee Osmia cornuta. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 60(1), 26–33Google Scholar
  22. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P., Peterson, S.S. (2000) Management of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) populations for almond pollination: methods to advance bee emergence. Environ. Entomol. 29(5), 874–883Google Scholar
  23. Bosch, J., Maeta, Y., Rust, R. (2001) A phylogenetic analysis of nesting behavior in the genus Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 94(4), 617–627Google Scholar
  24. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P., Trostle, G.E. (2006) Bee population returns and cherry yields in an orchard pollinated with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 99(2), 408–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bosch, J., Sgolastra, F., Kemp, W. (2008) Life cycle ecophysiology of Osmia mason bees used as crop pollinators. In: James, R., Pitts-Singer, T.L. (eds.) Bee pollination in agricultural ecosystems, pp. 1–19. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Bosch, J., Sgolastra, F., Kemp, W.P. (2010) Timing of eclosion affects diapause development, fat body consumption and longevity in Osmia lignaria, a univoltine, adult-wintering solitary bee. J. Insect Physiol. 56(12), 1949–1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brittain, C., Williams, N., Kremen, C., Klein, A.M. (2013) Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 280(1754), 1–7Google Scholar
  28. Calzoni, G.L., Speranza, A. (1998) Insect controlled pollination in Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.). Sci. Hortic Amsterdam 72(3–4), 227–237Google Scholar
  29. Cane, J.H. (2006) The Logan beemail shelter: a practical, portable unit for managing cavity-nesting agricultural pollinators. Am. Bee J. 146(7), 611–613Google Scholar
  30. Dietemann, V., Pflugfelder, J., Anderson, D., Charriere, J.D., Chejanovsky, N., et al. (2012) Varroa destructor: research avenues towards sustainable control. J. Apic. Res. 51(1), 125–132Google Scholar
  31. Elias, J., Dorn, S., Mazzi, D. (2010) Inbreeding in a natural population of the gregarious parasitoid wasp Cotesia glomerata. Mol. Ecol. 19(11), 2336–2345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Free, J.B. (1993) Insect pollination in crops. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Garibaldi, L.A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Winfree, R., Aizen, M.A., Bommarco, R., et al. (2013) Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. Science 339(6127), 1608–1611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Genersch, E. (2010) Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol 87(1), 87–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gruber, B., Eckel, K., Everaars, J., Dormann, C.F. (2011) On managing the red mason bee (Osmia bicornis) in apple orchards. Apidologie 42(5), 564–576Google Scholar
  36. Haider, M., Dorn, S., Müller, A. (2012) Intra- and interpopulational variation in the ability of a solitary bee species to develop on non-host pollen: implications for host range expansion. Funct. Ecol 27(1), 255-263Google Scholar
  37. Henry, M., Beguin, M., Requier, F., Rollin, O., Odoux, J.F., Aupinel, P., Aptel, J., Tchamitchian, S., Decourtye, A. (2012) A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees. Science 336(6079), 348–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Haider, M., Dorn, S., Sedivy, S. and Müller, A. Phylogeny and floral hosts of a predominantly pollen generalist group of mason bees (Megachilidae, Osmiini). Biol. J. Linn. Soc., in press.Google Scholar
  39. Hermann, M. (2008) Ertragsförderung & Qualitätssicherung durch optimale Bestäubung—Ansiedlung von einheimischen Mauerbienen. Öko-Obstbau 19(4), 17–19 (in German)Google Scholar
  40. Hermann, M. (2010) Einsatzmöglichkeiten und Haltung von Mauerbienen (Osmia sp.) in intensiven Obstkulturen. Obstbau 2, 66–69 (in German)Google Scholar
  41. Holm, S.N. (1973) Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) as a pollinator of plants in greenhouses. Entomol. Scand. 4(3), 217–224Google Scholar
  42. Holzschuh, A., Dudenhoffer, J.H., Tscharntke, T. (2012) Landscapes with wild bee habitats enhance pollination, fruit set and yield of sweet cherry. Biol. Conserv. 153, 101–107Google Scholar
  43. Kemp, W.P., Bosch, J., Dennis, B. (2004) Oxygen consumption during the life cycles of the prepupa-wintering bee Megachile rotundata and the adult-wintering bee Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 97(1), 161–170Google Scholar
  44. Kitamura, T. (1969) Studies on the pollination of apple by Osmia (III) preliminary report on the homing ability of Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) and O. pedicornis Cockerell. Kontyu 37(1), 83–90Google Scholar
  45. Klein, A.M., Vaissiere, B.E., Cane, J.H., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Cunningham, S.A., Kremen, C., Tscharntke, T. (2007) Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 274(1608), 303–313Google Scholar
  46. Kornmilch, J.C. (2010) Einsatz von Mauerbienen zur Bestäubung von Obstkulturen; Handbuch zur Nutzung der Roten Mauerbiene in Obstplantagen und Kleingärten. Bienenhotel, Rostock (in German)Google Scholar
  47. Krunic, M., Stanisavljevic, L. (2006) Augmentation of managed populations of Osmia cornuta and O. rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Southeastern Europe. Eur J Entomol 103(3), 695–697Google Scholar
  48. Krunic, M., Stanisavljevic, L., Brajkovic, M., Tomanovic, Z., Radovic, I. (2001) Ecological studies of Osmia cornuta (Latr.) (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) populations in Yugoslavia with special attention to their diapause, in: Benedek, P., Richards, K.W. (Eds.), Acta Hort. (ISHS) 561, 297301Google Scholar
  49. Krunic, M., Stanisavljevic, L., Pinzauti, M., Felicioli, A. (2005) The accompanying fauna of Osmia cornuta and Osmia rufa and effective measures of protection. Bull. Insectology 58(2), 141–152Google Scholar
  50. Kuhn, E.D., Ambrose, J.T. (1984) Pollination of delicious apple by megachilid bees of the genus Osmia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 57(2), 169–180Google Scholar
  51. Ladurner, E., Recla, L., Wolf, M., Zelger, R., Burgio, G. (2004) Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera Megachilidae) densities required for apple pollination: a cage study. J. Apic. Res. 43(3), 118–122Google Scholar
  52. Maccagnani, B., Ladurner, E., Santi, F., Burgio, G. (2003) Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) as a pollinator of pear (Pyrus communis): fruit- and seed-set. Apidologie 34(3), 207–216Google Scholar
  53. Maccagnani, B., Betti, F., Fontan, P. (2004) The role of ecological infrastructures in pollinators management: Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera Megachilidae) in pear orchards. Redia 87, 191–194Google Scholar
  54. Maccagnani, B., Burgio, G., Stanisavljevic, L.Z., Main, S. (2007) Osmia cornuta management in pear orchards. Bull. Insectology 60(1), 77–82Google Scholar
  55. Maddocks, R., Paulus, H.F. (1987) Quantitative aspects of the breeding biology of Osmia rufa L. and Osmia cornuta Latr. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) a comparative study of competition-reducing mechanisms in 2 closely related bee species. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Oekol. Geog Tiere 114(1), 15–44Google Scholar
  56. Maeta, Y. (1978) Comparative studies on the biology of the bees of the genus Osmia in Japan, with special reference to their management for pollination of crops (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Bull Tohoku Nat. Agric. Exp. Stat 57, 1–221 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  57. Maeta, Y. (1990) Utilization of wild bees. Farming Japan 24(6), 13–22Google Scholar
  58. Maeta, Y., Kitamura, T. (1974) How to manage the Mame-ko bee (Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski) for pollination of fruit crops. Ask. Co. Ltd, Naganoshi (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  59. Marquez, J., Bosch, J., Vicens, N. (1994) Pollens collected by wild and managed populations of the potential orchard pollinator Osmia cornuta (Latr) (Hym, Megachilidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 117(4), 353–359Google Scholar
  60. Michener, C.D. (2007) The bees of the world, 2nd edn. The Johns Hopkins University Press , BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  61. Mitchell, T.B. (1962) Bees of the Eastern United States. Technical bulletin. The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  62. Monzon, V.H., Bosch, J., Retana, J. (2004) Foraging behavior and pollinating effectiveness of Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on “Comice” pear. Apidologie 35(6), 575–585Google Scholar
  63. Müller, A. (2013). Palaearctic osmiine bees. http://blogs.ethz.ch/osmiini (accessed on 12 Jun 2013)
  64. Naug, D. (2009) Nutritional stress due to habitat loss may explain recent honeybee colony collapses. Biol. Conserv. 142(10), 2369–2372Google Scholar
  65. Park, Y.L., Kondo, V., White, J., West, T., McConnell, B., McCutcheon, T. (2009) Nest-to-nest dispersal of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari, Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hym., Megachilidae). J. Appl Entomol 133(3), 174–180Google Scholar
  66. Pitts-Singer, T.L. (2007) Olfactory response of megachilid bees, Osmia lignaria, Megachile rotundata and M. pugnata, to individual cues from old nest cavities. Environ Entomol 36(2), 402–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Pitts-Singer, T.L., Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P., Trostle, G.E. (2008) Field use of an incubation box for improved emergence timing of Osmia lignaria populations used for orchard pollination. Apidologie 39(2), 235–246Google Scholar
  68. Radmacher, S., Strohm, E. (2010) Factors affecting offspring body size in the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Apidologie 41(2), 169–177Google Scholar
  69. Radmacher, S., Strohm, E. (2011) Effects of constant and fluctuating temperatures on the development of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Apidologie 42(6), 711–720Google Scholar
  70. Rust, R.W. (1974) The systematics and biology of the genus Osmia, subgenera Osmia, Chalcosmia and Cephalosmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Wasmann J. Biol. 32(1), 1–94Google Scholar
  71. Rust, R.W., Torchio, P.F. (1991) Induction of Ascosphaera (Ascomycetes, Ascosphaerales) infections in field populations of Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Pan-Pac. Entomol. 67(4), 251–257Google Scholar
  72. Rust, R.W., Torchio, P.F. (1992) Effects of temperature and host developmental stage on Ascosphaera torchioi Youssef and McManus prevalence in Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Apidologie 23(1), 1–9Google Scholar
  73. Sampson, B.J., Cane, J.H. (2000) Pollination efficiencies of three bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) species visiting rabbiteye blueberry. J. Econ. Entomol. 93(6), 1726–1731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sampson, B.J., Stringer, S.J., Cane, J.H., Spiers, J.M. (2004) Screenhouse evaluations of a mason bee Osmia ribifloris (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) as a pollinator for blueberries in the southeastern United States. Small Fruits R. 3(3–4), 381–392Google Scholar
  75. Sampson, B.J., Cane, J.H., Kirker, G.T., Stringer, S.J., Spiers, J.M. (2009) Biology and management potential for three orchard bee species (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Osmia ribifloris Cockerell, O. lignaria (Say) and O. chalybea Smith with emphasis on the former. In: Hummer, K.E. (Ed.), Acta Hort. (ISHS) 810, 549–555.Google Scholar
  76. Schindler, M., Peters, B. (2011) Mason bees Osmia bicornis and Osmia cornuta as suitable orchard pollinators? Erwerbs-Obstbau 52(3–4), 111–116 (in German)Google Scholar
  77. Sedivy, C., Muller, A., Dorn, S. (2011) Closely related pollen generalist bees differ in their ability to develop on the same pollen diet: evidence for physiological adaptations to digest pollen. Funct. Ecol. 25(3), 718–725Google Scholar
  78. Seidelmann, K., Ulbrich, K., Mielenz, N. (2010) Conditional sex allocation in the red mason bee, Osmia rufa. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 64(3), 337–347Google Scholar
  79. Sekita, N. (2001) Managing Osmia cornifrons to pollinate apples in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, in: Benedek P. Richards K.W. (Eds.), Proceedings of the eight international pollination symposium pollination: integrator of crops and native plant systems. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 561,303-307.Google Scholar
  80. Sgolastra, F. (2007) Ecofisiologia del ciclo biologico di Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Università di Bologna, Bologna (in Italian)Google Scholar
  81. Sgolastra, F., Kemp, W.P., Buckner, J.S., Pitts-Singer, T.L., Maini, S., Bosch, J. (2011) The long summer: pre-wintering temperatures affect metabolic expenditure and winter survival in a solitary bee. J. Insect Physiol. 57(12), 1651–1659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sgolastra, F., Kemp, W.P., Maini, S., Bosch, J. (2012) Duration of prepupal summer dormancy regulates synchronization of adult diapause with winter temperatures in bees of the genus Osmia. J. Insect Physiol. 58(7), 924–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Sheffield, C.S., Kevan, P.G., Westby, S.M., Smith, R.F. (2008a) Diversity of cavity-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) within apple orchards and wild habitats in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia. Canada. Can. Entomol. 140(2), 235–249Google Scholar
  84. Sheffield, C.S., Westby, S.M., Smith, R.F., Kevan, P.G. (2008b) Potential of bigleaf lupine for building and sustaining Osmia lignaria populations for pollination of apple. Can. Entomol. 140(5), 589–599Google Scholar
  85. Steffan-Dewenter, I., Schiele, S. (2004) Nest-site fidelity, body weight and population size of the red mason bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), evaluated by mark-recapture experiments. Entomol. Gen. 27(2), 123–132Google Scholar
  86. Tepedino, V.J., Torchio, P.F. (1982a) Temporal variability in the sex-ratio of a nonsocial bee, Osmia lignaria propinqua—extrinsic determination or the tracking of an optimum. Oikos 38(2), 177–182Google Scholar
  87. Tepedino, V.J., Torchio, P.F. (1982b) Phenotypic variability in nesting success among Osmia lignaria propinqua females in glasshouse environment (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Ecol. Entomol. 7(4), 453–462Google Scholar
  88. Tepedino, V.J., Thompson, R., Torchio, P.F. (1984) Heritability for size in the megachilid bee Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson. Apidologie 15(1), 83–87Google Scholar
  89. Torchio, P.F. (1976) Use of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae) as a pollinator in an apple and prune orchard. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 49(4), 475–482Google Scholar
  90. Torchio, P.F. (1981a) Field experiments with Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson as a pollinator in almond orchards 1. 1975 studies (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol Soc 54(4), 815–823Google Scholar
  91. Torchio, P.F. (1981b) Field experiments with Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson as a pollinator in almond orchards 2. 1976 studies (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol Soc 54(4), 824–836Google Scholar
  92. Torchio, P.F. (1982a) Field experiments with the pollinator species, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in apple orchards 1. 1975 studies (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol Soc 55(1), 136–144Google Scholar
  93. Torchio, P.F. (1982b) Field experiments with the pollinator species, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in apple orchards 2. 1976 studies (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol Soc 55(4), 759–778Google Scholar
  94. Torchio, P.F. (1982c) Field experiments with Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson as a pollinator in almond orchards 3. 1977 studies (Hymenoptera - Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol Soc 55(1), 101–116Google Scholar
  95. Torchio, P.F. (1984a) Field experiments with the pollinator species, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) in apple orchards 3. 1977 studies. J. Kansas Entomol Soc 57(3), 517–521Google Scholar
  96. Torchio, P.F. (1984b) Field experiments with the pollinator species, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in apple orchards 4. 1978 studies (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol Soc 57(4), 689–694Google Scholar
  97. Torchio, P.F. (1985) Field experiments with the pollinator species, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in apple orchards 5. (1979–1980), methods of introducing bees, nesting success, seed counts, fruit yields (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol Soc 58(3), 448–464Google Scholar
  98. Torchio, P.F. (1987) Use of non-honey bee species as pollinators of crops. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 118, 111–124Google Scholar
  99. Torchio, P.F. (1989) Biology, immature development, and adaptive behavior of Stelis montana, a kleptoparasite of Osmia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 82(5), 616–632Google Scholar
  100. Torchio, P.F. (1990) Osmia ribifloris, a native bee species developed as a commercially managed pollinator of highbush blueberry (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 63(3), 427–436Google Scholar
  101. Torchio, P.F. (1991a) Bees as crop pollinators and the role of solitary species in changing environments. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 288, 49–61Google Scholar
  102. Torchio, P.F. (1991b) Use of Osmia lignaria propinqua (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) as a mobile pollinator of orchard crops. Environ. Entomol. 20(2), 590–596Google Scholar
  103. Torchio, P.F. (1992) Effects of spore dosage and temperature on pathogenic expressions of chalkbrood syndrome caused by Ascosphaera torchiori within larvae of Osmia lignaria propinqua (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Environ. Entomol. 21(5), 1086–1091Google Scholar
  104. Torchio, P.F., Asensio, E. (1985) The introduction of the European bee, Osmia cornuta Latr into the United States as a potential pollinator of orchard crops, and a comparison of its manageability with Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 58(1), 42–52Google Scholar
  105. Torchio, P.F., Tepedino, V.J. (1980) Sex-ratio, body size and seasonality in a solitary bee, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Evolution 34(5), 993–1003Google Scholar
  106. Torchio, P.F., Asensio, E., Thorp, R.W. (1987) Introduction of the European bee, Osmia cornuta, into California almond orchards (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Environ. Entomol. 16(3), 664–667Google Scholar
  107. Vicens, N., Bosch, J. (2000a) Nest site orientation and relocation of populations of the orchard pollinator Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Environ. Entomol. 29(1), 69–75Google Scholar
  108. Vicens, N., Bosch, J. (2000b) Pollinating efficacy of Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Apidae) on ‘red Delicious’ apple. Environ. Entomol. 29(2), 235–240Google Scholar
  109. Vicens, N., Bosch, J. (2000c) Weather-dependent pollinator activity in an apple orchard, with special reference to Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae and Apidae). Environ. Entomol. 29(3), 413–420Google Scholar
  110. Wei, S.G., Wang, R., Smirle, M.J., Xu, H.L. (2002) Release of Osmia excavata and Osmia jacoti (Hymenoptera : Megachilidae) for apple pollination. Can. Entomol. 134(3), 369–380Google Scholar
  111. Westrich, P. (1989) Die Wildbienen Baden-Württembergs. Ulmer, Stuttgart (in German)Google Scholar
  112. White, J., Son, Y., Park, Y.L. (2009) Temperature-dependent emergence of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) adults. J. Econ. Entomol. 102(6), 2026–2032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilkaniec, Z., Giejdasz, K. (2003) Suitability of nesting substrates for the cavity-nesting bee Osmia rufa. J. Apic. Res. 42(3), 29–31Google Scholar
  114. Wilkaniec, Z., Radajewska, B. (1997) Solitary bee Osmia rufa L (Apoidea, Megachilidae) as pollinator of strawberry cultivated in an unheated plastic tunnel. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 439, 489–493Google Scholar
  115. Yamada, M., Oyama, N., Sekita, N., Shirasaki, S., Tsugawa, C. (1971) The ecology of the megachilid bee Osmia cornifrons and its utilization for apple pollination. Bull. Aomori Apple Exp. Stat. 15, 1–80 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  116. Youssef, N.N., McManus, W.R., Torchio, P.F. (1985) Cross-infectivity potential of Ascosphaera spp (Ascomycetes, Ascosphaera) on the bee, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson (Megachilidae, Osmia). J. Econ. Entomol. 78(1), 227–231Google Scholar
  117. Zurbuchen, A., Landert, L., Klaiber, J., Müller, A., Hein, S., Dorn, S. (2010) Maximum foraging ranges in solitary bees: only few individuals have the capability to cover long foraging distances. Biol. Conserv. 143(3), 669–676Google Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA, DIB and Springer-Verlag France 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ETH Zurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Applied EntomologyZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations