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Nitric oxide participates at the first steps of Apis mellifera cellular immune activation in response to non-self recognition

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The honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera) is being affected by many diseases. The elimination of organisms in the insect hemocoel requires hemocytes recognition and response to the invader. After recognizing a surface as “foreign,” hemocytes “spread.” Spreading on glass surfaces by insect hemocytes is used as a measure of immune activation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling and immune effector molecule in response to microbial infection that has been proposed as a key molecule in invertebrate immunity. The participation of NO in the hemocytic response of A. mellifera upon recognition of non-self is herein analyzed. Glass-adherent hemocytes produce large amounts of NO. Treatment with NO donor sodium nitroprusside enhanced hemocyte spreading, while NO scavenger carboxyPTIO reduced hemocyte immune activation. These results are indicative of NO participation at the beginning of A. mellifera immune response to non-self.

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This research was supported by “ANPCyT,” Argentina (PICT Redes 2006 no. 00890 Nodo 01 and PICT 2011 2383). The authors would like to thank CONICET and the UNMdP. Pedro Negri is a doctoral fellow from CONICET, Argentina. The authors are very grateful to Dr. Claudia Studdert for E. coli strain and to Lic. Leonardo De Feudis for beekeeping support.

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Correspondence to Pedro Negri.

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Manuscript editor: Klaus Hartfelder

L’oxyde nitrique intervient dans les premières étapes de la réponse immunitaire cellulaire d’ Apis mellifera à la reconnaissance du non-soi

Apidae/ immunité / oxyde nitrique/ infection

Stickstoffmonoxid spielt eine Rolle in den ersten Schritten der Aktivierung der zellulären Immunantwort bei Apis mellifera

Apis mellifera / Immunität/ Stickstoffmonoxid

M. Eguaras and L. Lamattina contributed equally as senior authors.

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Negri, P., Maggi, M., Correa-Aragunde, N. et al. Nitric oxide participates at the first steps of Apis mellifera cellular immune activation in response to non-self recognition. Apidologie 44, 575–585 (2013).

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