Chemical control has become less effective for the invasive weed species horseweed (Conyza canadensis) found in tangerine (Citrus reticulate) orchards of Korea. The dose–response assays of the biotypes of C. canadensis collected in 2017 from the Jeju province of Korea demonstrated that the amount of glyphosate needed for 50% growth reduction (GR50) in the glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotype was up to 100 times greater than that in the glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotype (0.328 kg a.e. ha−1). However, the mechanism of resistance in the GR populations of C. canadensis in Korea is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the mechanism of resistance to glyphosate in the Korean C. canadensis populations. Shikimic acid accumulation and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene expression were analyzed in a GR and a GS biotype of C. canadensis. The GR biotype showed less shikimic acid accumulation than the GS biotype. A target point mutation in the sequence encoding the Pro 106 of EPSPS1 was not found after sequencing the GR biotype. Moreover, the expression level of EPSPS1 was not altered significantly following application of glyphosate to the GS and GR biotypes, whereas the levels of M10 and M11 ABC transporter genes which play an important role in plant growth and nutrition, and the interaction of the plant with its environment were found to be slightly higher in the glyphosate-treated GS and GR biotypes than the untreated control plants. Our results show that M10 and M11 are likely to be involved in the glyphosate resistance mechanism in C. canadensis. Consequently, non-chemical control methods should be implemented to manage or slow the spread of glyphosate resistance in C. canadensis.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files.
Alarcón-Reverte R, Fischer AJ (2013) Resistance to glyphosate in jungle rice (Echinochloa colona) from California. Weed Sci 61:48–54
Andrew D, Vijay KV, Tatiana VD, Dalhoe K, Sridevi N, Dallas EP, Patrick JT, Bernd F, Bikram SG, Mithila J (2017) Physical mapping of amplified copies of the 5-enolpyruvyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus. Plant Physiol 173:1226–1234
Bo AB, Won OJ, Park IK, Roh SW, Park KW (2017) Glyphosate resistant Conyza canadensis occurring in tangerine orchards of Jeju province of Korea. Weed Turfgrass Sci 6:350–354
Cardinali VCB, Dias ACR, Mueller TC, Abercrombie L, Stewart JRCN, Vl T, Christoffoleti PJ (2015) Shikimate accumulation, glyphosate absorption and translocation in horseweed biotypes. Planta Daninha 33:109–118
Christopher LM, Thomas CM, Robert MH, John BW (2004) Response of selected horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) populations to glyphosate. J Agric Food Chem 52:879–883
Cromartie TH, Polge ND (2000) An improved assay for shikimic acid and its use as a monitor for the activity of sulfosate. Proc Weed Sci Soc America 40:291
De Prado JL, Osuna MD, Heredia A, De Prado R (2005) Lolium rigidum, a pool of resistance mechanisms to ACCase inhibitor herbicides. J Agric Food Chem 53:2185–2191
Dinelli G, Marotti I, Bonetti A, Minelli M, Catizone P, Barnes J (2006) Physiological and molecular insight on the mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate in Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. Biotypes. Pesticide Biochem Physiol 86:30–41
Feng PCC, Tran M, Chiu T, Sammons RD, Heck GR, Cajacob CA (2004) Investigation into glyphosate resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis): retention, uptake, translocation, and metabolism. Weed Sci 52:498–505
Fidel GT, Adrian PB, Stephen C (2017) Comparative proteomic analysis of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) biotypes identifies candidate proteins for glyphosate resistance. Sci Rep 7:42565
Fidel GT, Javier GH, Francisco B, Jose DV, Rafael P (2014) First evidence for a target site mutation in the EPSPS2 gene in glyphosate-resistant Sumatran fleabane from citrus orchards. Agron Sustain Dev 34:553–560
Ge X, André D’avignon D, Ackerman JJH, Sammons RD (2010) Rapid vacuolar seques-tration: the horseweed glyphosate resistance mechanism. Pest Manag Sci 66:345–348
González-Torralva F, Rojano-Delgado AM, De Castro MDL, Mülleder N, De Prado R (2012) Two non-target mechanisms are involved in glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) biotypes. J Plant Physiol 169:1673–1679
Kang J, Park J, Choi H, Burla B, Kretzschmar T, Lee Y, Martinoia E (2011) Plant ABC transporters. The Arabidopsis Book. The America Society of Plant Biologists. https://doi.org/10.1199/tab.0153 (06 December, 2011)
Koger CH, Poston HD, Hayes MR, Montgomery FR (2004) Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in Mississippi. Weed Technol 18:820–825
Koger CH, Reddy KN (2005) Role of absorption and translocation in the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in horseweed (Conyza canadensis). Weed Sci 53:84–89
Koger CH, Shaner DL, Henry WB, Nadler-Hassar T, Thomas WE, Wilcut JW (2005) Assessment of two nondestructive assays for detecting glyphosate resistance in horseweed (Conyza canadensis). Weed Sci 53:559–566
Lorentz L, Beffa R, Kraehmer H (2011) Recovery of plants and histological observations on advanced weed stages after glyphosate treatment. Weed Res 51:333–343
Mueller TC, Massey JH, Hazes RM, Main CL, Stewart N (2003) Shikimate accumulates in both glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq). J Agric Food Chem 51:680–684
Ng CH, Wickneswari R, Salmijah S, Teng YT, Ismail BS (2003) Gene polymorphisms in glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible biotypes of Eleusine indica from Malaysia. Weed Res 43:108–115
Nol N, Tsikou D, Eid M, Livieratos IC, Giannopolitis CN (2012) Shikimate leaf disc assay for early detection of glyphosate resistance in Conyza canadensis and relative transcript levels of EPSPS and ABC transporter genes. Weed Res 52:233–241
Pavlovic D, Reinhardt CF, Bozic D, Vrbnicanin S (2013) Determination of Conyza canadensis levels of sensitivity to glyphosate trimesium sulphosate. Int J Agric Biol 15:1091–1097
Peng YH, Abercrombie LLG, Yuan JS (2010) Characterization of the horseweed (Conyza canadensis) transcriptome using GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing and its application for expression analysis of candidate non-target herbicide resistance genes. Pest Manag Sci 66:1053–1062
Perez A, Kogan M (2003) Glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum in Chilean orchards. Weed Res 43:12–19
Pline WA, Wilcut JW, Duke SO, Edmisten KL, Wells R (2002) Tolerance and accumulation of shikimic acid in response to glyphosate applications in glyphosate-resistant and nonglyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). J Agric Food Chem 50:506–512
Powles S, Preston C, Bryan I, Jutsum A (1996) Herbicide resistance: Impact and management. Adv Agron 58:57–93
Powles SB, Yu Q (2010) Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicide. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:317–347
Ramakers C, Ruijter JM, Deprez RH, Moorman AF (2003) Assumption-free analysis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data. Neurosci Lett 339:62–66
Sammons RD, Gaines TA (2014) Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge. Pest Manag Sci 70:1367–1377
Sellers BA, Pollard JM, Smeda RJ (2005) Two common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) biotypes differ in biology and response to glyphosate. Proc Weed Sci Soc 45:156
Shaner DL, Lindenmeyer RB, Ostlie M (2012) What have the mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate taught us? Pest Manag Sci 68:3–9
Shaner DL, Nadler-Hassar T, Henry WB, Koger CH (2005) A rapid in vivo shikimate accumulation assay with excised leaf discs. Weed Sci 53:769–774
Shrestha A, Hembree KJ, Va N (2007) Growth stage influences level of resistance in glyphosate-resistant horseweed. Calif Agric 61:67–70
Simarmata M, Pener D (2008) The basis for glyphosate resistance in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) from California. Weed Sci 56:181–188
Song XL, Wu JJ, Zhang HJ, Qiang S (2011) Occurrence of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) population in China. Agric Sci China 10:1049–1055
Tani E, Chachalis D, Travlos IS (2015) A glyphosate resistance mechanism in Conyza canadensis involves synchronization of EPSPS and ABC-transporter genes. Plant Mol Biol Report 33:1105–1115
Urbano JM, Borrego A, Torres V, Jimenez C, Leon JM, Barnes J (2005) Glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) in Spain. Proc Weed Sci Soc 45:394
VanGessel MJ, Scott BA, Johnson QR, White-Hansen SE (2009) Influence of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza Canadensis) growth stage on response to glyphosate applications. Weed Technol 23:49–53
Yu Q, Huang S, Powles S (2010) Direct measurement of paraquat in leaf protoplasts indi-cates vacuolar paraquat sequestration as a resistance mechanism in Lolium rigidum. Pestic Biochem Physiol 98:104–109
This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture and Forestry (IPET) through Agricultural Machinery/Equipment Localization Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (321056).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Communicated by Ali Sarkhosh.
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Bo, A.B., Jia, W.Q., Le, T.H. et al. Mechanisms of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) collected from tangerine orchards in Korea. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-021-00372-9
- Conyza canadensis
- Glyphosate resistance
- Shikimic acid accumulation
- ABC transporters genes