Skip to main content

Relationship among floral scent intensity, ethylene sensitivity, and longevity of carnation flowers

Abstract

Floral fragrance is a vital factor for the marketability of ornamental flowers, and it may also influence flower longevity. Despite several studies on the relationship between floral fragrance and flower longevity, a scientific consensus about this relationship has not been established to date. To investigate the influence of floral scent level on ethylene sensitivity and flower longevity, we determined the relationship between the mRNA levels of ethylene biosynthesis genes and senescence characteristics of low- and high-scent carnation cultivars after ethylene treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that high floral scent is related to increased sensitivity to ethylene as a consequence of transcriptional accumulation of the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1 in carnations. Flower senescence symptoms responsible for vase life termination following ethylene exposure differed depending on the floral scent level; while low-scent flowers terminated their vase life due to brown edges and wilting, high-scent flowers terminated their vase life earlier due to petal inrolling, which resulted from their rapid tissue response to ethylene. The results revealed that the longevity of carnation flowers is strongly negatively correlated with floral scent level and ethylene sensitivity and that the initial transcript level of DcACO1 contributed the most to the vase life of high-scent flowers. This result suggested that floral scent intensity is closely related to ethylene sensitivity in carnation flowers. High floral scent is correlated with a rapid tissue response to exogenous ethylene and consequently shortens the vase life of carnation flowers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Barletta A (1995) Scent makes a comeback. Floracult Int 5:23–25

    Google Scholar 

  2. Borda AM, Nell TA, Clark DG (2007) The relationship between floral fragrance and vase life of cut roses. Acta Hortic 755:235–242. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.755.30

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Borda AM, Clark DG, Huber DJ, Welt BA, Nell TA (2011) Effects of ethylene on volatile emission and fragrance in cut roses: the relationship between fragrance and vase life. Postharvest Biol Technol 59:245–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2010.09.008

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Borochov A, Woodson WR (1989) Physiology and biochemistry of flower petal senescence. Hortic Rev 11:15–43

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Brandt AS, Woodson WR (1992) Variation in flower senescence and ethylene biosynthesis among carnations. Hort Sci 27:1100. https://doi.org/10.21273/hortsci.27.10.1100

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Fanourakis D, Pieruschka R, Savvides A, Macnish AJ, Sarlikioti V, Woltering EJ (2013) Sources of vase life variation in cut roses: a review. Postharvest Biol Technol 78:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.12.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ha STT, Lim JH, In BC (2019) Differential expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes in floral organs between ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive rose cultivars. Hortic Sci Technol 37:227–237. https://doi.org/10.12972/kjhst.20190022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ha STT, Jung YO, Lim JH (2020) Pretreatment with Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extract improves the postharvest quality of cut roses (Rosa hybrida L.). Hortic Environ Biotechnol 61:511–524. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-020-00238-6

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Ha STT, Nguyen TK, Lim JH (2021) Effects of air-exposure time on water relations, longevity, and aquaporin-related gene expression of cut roses. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 62:63–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-020-00302-1

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. In B-C, Binder BM, Falbel TG, Patterson SE (2013a) Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). J Exp Bot 64:4923–4937. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ert281

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. In BC, Strable J, Binder BM, Falbel TG, Patterson SE (2013b) Morphological and molecular characterization of ethylene binding inhibition in carnations. Postharvest Biol Technol 86:272–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.07.007

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. In B-C, Strable J, Patterson SE (2015) Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on flower senescence and petal abscission in Dianthus caryophyllus L. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 56:786–792. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-015-0083-4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. In B-C, Ha STT, Lee YS, Lim JH (2017) Relationships between the longevity, water relations, ethylene sensitivity, and gene expression of cut roses. Postharvest Biol Technol 131:74–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2017.05.003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Jones ML (2003) Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially regulated by ethylene and ACC in carnation styles. Plant Growth Regul 40:129–138. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024241006254

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Knudsen JT, Tollsten L, Bergström LG (1993) Floral scents—a checklist of volatile compounds isolated by head-space techniques. Phytochemistry 33:253–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(93)85502-I

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kosugi Y, Shibuya K, Tsuruno N, Iwazaki Y, Mochizuki A, Yoshioka T, Hashiba T, Satoh S (2000) Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals. Plant Sci 158:139–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-9452(00)00314-9

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Mayak S, Tirosh T (1993) Unusual ethylene-related behavior in senescing flowers of the carnation Sandrosa. Physiol Plant 88:420–426. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb01354.x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Mor Y, Halevy AH, Spiegelstein H, Mayak S (1985) The site of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthesis in senescing carnation petals. Physiol Plant 65:196–202. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1985.tb02382.x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Mortensen LM, Pettersen RI, Gislerød H (2007) Air humidity variation and control of vase life and powdery mil- dew in cut roses under continuous lighting. Eur J Hortic Sci 72:255–259

    Google Scholar 

  20. Nukui H, Kudo S, Yamashita A, Satoh S (2004) Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation “White Candle”: role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence. J Exp Bot 55:641–650. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erh081

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Onozaki T (2018) Breeding of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) for long vase life. Breed Sci 68:3–13. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.17091

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Overbeek JHM, Woltering EJ (1990) Synergistic effect of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene during senescence of isolated carnation petals. Physiol Plant 79:368–376. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1990.tb06755.x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Satoh S, Shibuya K, Waki K, Kosugi Y (2005) Mechanism of senescence in carnation flowers. Acta Hortic 669:191–198. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.669.24

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Schade F, Legge RL, Thompson JE (2001) Fragrance volatiles of developing and senescing carnation flowers. Phytochemistry 56:703–710. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00483-0

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Sexton R, Stopford AP, Moodie WT, Porter AEA (2005) Aroma production from cut sweet pea flowers (Lathyrus odoratus): the role of ethylene. Physiol Plant 124:381–389. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2005.00498.x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Shibuya K, Nagata M, Tanikawa N, Yoshioka T, Hashiba T, Satoh S (2002) Comparison of mRNA levels of three ethylene receptors in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). J Exp Bot 53:399–406. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/53.368.399

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Singh P, Bharti N, Singh AP, Tripathi SK, Pandey SP, Chauhan AS, Kulkarni A, Sane AP (2020) Petal abscission in fragrant roses is associated with large scale differential regulation of the abscission zone transcriptome. Sci Rep 10:17196. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74144-3

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. Tanase K, Onozaki T, Satoh S, Shibata M, Ichimura K (2008) Differential expression levels of ethylene biosynthetic pathway genes during senescence of long-lived carnation cultivars. Postharvest Biol Technol 47:210–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.06.023

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Tanase K, Otsu S, Satoh S, Onozaki T (2013) Expression and regulation of senescence-related genes in carnation flowers with low ethylene production during senescence. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 82:179–187

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Tanase K, Otsu S, Satoh S, Onozaki T (2015) Expression levels of ethylene biosynthetic genes and senescence-related genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) with ultra-long-life flowers. Sci Hortic 183:31–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2014.11.025

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. ten Have A, Woltering EJ (1997) Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence. Plant Mol Biol 34:89–97. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005894703444

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Thomas CJR, Smith AR, Hall MA (1985) Partil purification of an ethylene-binding site from Phaseolus vulgaris L. cotyledons. Planta 164:272–277

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Underwood BA, Tieman DM, Shibuya K, Dexter RJ, Loucas HM, Simkin AJ, Sims CA, Schmelz EA, Klee HJ et al (2005) Ethylene-regulated floral volatile synthesis in petunia corollas. Plant Physiol 138:255–266. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.104.051144

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. VBN (2005) Evaluation cards for Dianthus. FloraHolland, Aalsmeer, The Netherlands

  35. Wu MJ, van Doorn WG, Reid MS (1991) Variation in the senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars. I. Comparison of flower life, respiration and ethylene biosynthesis. Sci Hortic 48:99–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(91)90156-S

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Yangkhamman P, Fukai S (2007) Genotypic differences in vase life and ethylene production of cut carnation flowers under high temperature conditions. Acta Hortic 755:251–258. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.755.32

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by Ministry of Education (NRF-2018R1A6A1A03024862).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

BC designed the study, carried out the experiment, analysed the data, and contributed to writing of the manuscript. STT conducted the experiments and contributed to writing of the manuscript. YT contributed to preparation of figures and tables. JH contributed to sample preparation and supervised the research project.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jin Hee Lim.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

No conflicts of interest to declare.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by Jinwook Lee, Ph.D.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

In, BC., Ha, S.T.T., Kim, YT. et al. Relationship among floral scent intensity, ethylene sensitivity, and longevity of carnation flowers. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-021-00368-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Carnation
  • Ethylene biosynthesis
  • Gene expression
  • Longevity
  • Scent
  • Vase life