Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology

, Volume 60, Issue 5, pp 637–645 | Cite as

Growth characteristics and flowering initiation of Phalaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ as affected by the daily light integral

  • Hyo Beom Lee
  • Ju Hee Lee
  • Seong Kwang An
  • Ji Hyun Park
  • Ki Sun KimEmail author
Research Report


This study was conducted to determine the effects of daily light integral (DLI) levels with different photoperiods and light intensities on the growth and flowering initiation of Phalaenopsis plants. Five-month-old Phalaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ plants were treated with combinations of three photoperiods [8/16 (day/night, short day, SD), 12/12 (medium day, MD), and 16/8 h (long day, LD)] and three light intensities in the range of photosynthetically active radiation of 50, 100, and 200 μmol·m−2·s−1, resulting in DLI levels ranging from 1.44 to 11.52 mol·m−2·d−1 with warm-white LEDs at 28°C during the vegetative period. Additionally, 12-month-old plants were treated with combinations of three photoperiods [8/16 (day/night, SD), 8 + 8/8 (day-extension (DE); an extension with 10 μmol·m−2·s−1 for 8 h right after the SD), and 16/8 h (LD)] and three light intensities (75, 150, and 300 μmol·m−2·s−1), resulting in DLI levels ranging from 2.16 to 17.28 mol·m−2·d−1, at 20°C during the forcing period for flowering. During the vegetative period, plants showed a tendency of overgrowth in leaves, via the formation of long and narrow leaves, as the light intensity decreased, irrespective of the photoperiod. The number of new leaves, total leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights increased with increasing photoperiod and light intensity, implying an increase in the amount of light energy. During the forcing period, photoperiodic effects on flowering initiation were not observed, while increasing the light intensity increased the number of inflorescences and accelerated spiking. The DLI showed higher correlation coefficients with growth and flowering initiation characteristics than those of the photoperiod or light intensity alone. New leaf emergence, biomass accumulation, and spiking were enhanced as DLI levels increased, although these positive effects were gradually saturated. These findings indicated that the DLI is a major factor in the growth and flowering initiation of Phalaenopsis plants and increasing DLI levels can promote growth or flowering initiation of these plants. These findings will be useful in controlling light conditions to maximize the growth rate and shorten the cultivation time in Phalaenopsis cultivation.


DLI Doritaenopsis Light intensity Orchid Photoperiod 



This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Advanced Production Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (114148–3).

Author’s contribution

KSK, HBL, JHL, and SKA conceived and designed the study. HBL, JHL, and JHP carried out the experiments. HBL and JHL analyzed the data. All authors contributed to data interpretation. HBL and JHL wrote the manuscript. KSK provided guidance on the whole study and improved the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. An HR, Kwon OK, Lee SY, Park PH, Park PM, Choi I, Lee H, Yoo JH (2019) Breeding of yellow small-type Phalaenopsis ‘Yellow Scent’ with fragrance. Hortic Sci Technol 37:304–310Google Scholar
  2. Blanchard MG, Runkle ES, Fisher PR (2011) Modeling plant morphology and development of petunia in response to temperature and photosynthetic daily light integral. Sci Hortic 129:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen WH, Chen HH (2011) Orchid biotechnology II, Edn 1. World Scientific Publishing Co, Pte. Ltd, Singapore, pp 1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen CC, Lin RS (2012) CO2 uptake patterns in Phalaenopsis amabilis. Afr J Agric Res 7:128–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christenson EA (2001) Phalaenopsis: a monograph, Edn 1. Timber Press, Portland, pp 24–25Google Scholar
  6. De LC, Pathak R, Rao AN, Rajeevan PK (2014) Commercial orchids. Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin, Germany, pp 17–18Google Scholar
  7. Fausey BA, Heins RD, Cameron AC (2005) Daily light integral affects flowering and quality of greenhouse-grwon Acchillea, Gaura, and Lavandula. HortScience 40:114–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Faust JE (2002) Light management in greenhouses. I. Daily light integral: a useful tool for the U.S. Floriculture Industry. LightManagement pt l.pdf
  9. Faust JE, Heins RD (1993) Modeling leaf development of the African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha). J Am Soc Hort Sci 118:747–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guo WJ, Lin YZ, Lee N (2012) Photosynthetic light requirements and effects of low irradiance and daylength on Phalaenopsis amabilis. J Am Soc Hort Sci 137:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hückstädt AB, Torre S (2013) Irradiance during vegetative growth phase affects production time and reproductive development of Phalaenopsis. Eur J Hort Sci 78:160–168Google Scholar
  12. Inada K, Yabumoto Y (1989) Effects of light quality, daylength and periodic temperature variation on the growth of lettuce and radish plants. Jpn J Crop Sci 58:689–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jang S, Choi SC, An G, Schmelzer E (2015) Functional characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite flowering genes PaFT1 and PaFD. PLoS ONE 10:e0134987. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaczperski MP, Carlson WH, Karlsson MG (1991) Growth and development of Petunia × hybrid a as a function of temperature and irradiance. J Am Soc HortSci 116:232–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kataoka K, Sumitomo K, Fudano T, Kawase K (2004) Changes in sugar content of Phalaenopsis leaves before floral transition. Sci Hortic 102:121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim JK, Yoon YJ, Kim KS, Na J-K, Choi KY (2018) Effects of relative humidity and air injection on physiological and stomatal responses in Phalaenopsis during acclimatization. Hortic Sci Technol 36:193–201Google Scholar
  17. Kitaya Y, Niu G, Kozai T, Ohashi M (1998) Photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, and CO2 concentration affect growth and morphology of lettuce plug transplants. HortScience 33:988–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Konow EA, Wang YT (2001) Irradiance levels affect in vitro and greenhouse growth, flowering, and photosynthetic behavior of a hybrid Phalaenopsis orchid. J Am Soc Hort Sci 126:531–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee HB, An SK, Lee SY, Kim KS (2017) Vegetative growth characteristics of Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis plants under different artificial lighting sources. Hortic Sci Technol 35:21–29Google Scholar
  20. Lin MJ, Hsu BD (2004) Photosynthetic plasticity of Phalaenopsis in response to different light environments. J Plant Physiol 161:1259–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lopez RG, Runkle ES (2005) Environmental physiology of growth and flowering of orchids. HortScience 40:1969–1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lopez RG, Runkle ES, Wang YT, Blanchard MG, Hsu T (2007) Growing the best Phalaenopsis, part 3: temperature and light requirements, height, insect and disease control. Orchids 76:184–189Google Scholar
  23. Lüttge U (2008) Crassulacean acid metabolism. Wiley, Hoboken, NJGoogle Scholar
  24. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence–a practical guide. J Expt Bot 51:659–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Niu G, Heins RD, Cameron AC, Carlson WH (2000) Day and night temperature, daily light integral and CO2 enrichment affect growth and flower development of pansy (Viola × wittrockiana). J Am Soc Hort Sci 125:436–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nobel PS (1989) Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. Bot Gaz 1(50):9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nobel PS, Hartsock TL (1983) Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation, nocturnal acid accumulation, and CO2 uptake for a crassulacean acid metabolism plant, Opuntia ficus-indica. Plant Physiol 71:71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nose A, Heima K, Miyazato K, Murayama S (1986) Effects of daylength on CAM type CO2 and water vapour exchange of pineapple plants. Photosynthetica 20:20–28Google Scholar
  29. Oh W, Cheon IH, Kim KS, Runkle ES (2009) Photosynthetic daily light integral influences flowering time and crop characteristics of Cyclamen persicum. HortScience 44:341–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ota K, Morioka K, Yamamoto Y (1991) Effects of leaf age, inflorescence, temperature, light intensity and moisture conditions on CAM photosynthesis in Phalaenopsis. J Jpn Soc Hort Sci 60:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rotor GB (1952) Daylength and temperature in relation to growth and flowering of orchids. Cornell Univ Agr Exp Sta Bull 885:3–45Google Scholar
  32. Sakanishi Y, Imanishi H, Ishida G (1980) Effect of temperature on growth and flowering of Phalaenopsis amabilis. Bul Univ Osaka Series B Agr Biol 32:1–9Google Scholar
  33. Sekizuka F, Nose A, Kawamitsu Y, Murayama S, Arisumi K (1995) Effects of day length on gas exchange characteristics in crassulacean acid metabolism plant, Dendrobium ekapol cv. Panda Jpn J Crop Sci 64:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van der Knaap N (2005) Cultivation guide Phalaenopsis: knowledge for professionals. Bleiswijk, The Netherlands, Anthura BV, p 176Google Scholar
  35. Wang YT (1995) Phalaenopsis orchid light requirement during the induction of spiking. HortScience 30:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. White J, Warrington IJ (1984) Effects of split-night temperatures, light, and chlormequat on growth and carbohydrates status of Pelargonium × hortorum. J Am Soc Hort Sci 109:458–463Google Scholar
  37. Yoneda K, Momose H, Kubota S (1991) Effects of daylength and temperature on flowering in juvenile and adult Phalaenopsis plants. J Jpn Soc Hort Sci 60:651–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyo Beom Lee
    • 1
  • Ju Hee Lee
    • 1
  • Seong Kwang An
    • 1
  • Ji Hyun Park
    • 1
  • Ki Sun Kim
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Horticultural Science and BiotechnologySeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Research Institute of Agriculture and Life SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations