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Phylogeny and genetic variation in the genus Eranthis using nrITS and cpIS single nucleotide polymorphisms

A Correction to this article was published on 08 May 2019

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The relationships among species in the genus Eranthis Salisb. were investigated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the nuclear DNA internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 region (nrITS) and the chloroplast trnL-trnF interspacer region (cpIS). Phylogenetic relationships based on the nrITS and cpIS were inferred with posterior probabilities with STRUCTURE analysis and the neighbor-joining method. Two major clades from nrITS and cpIS were consistent with species with yellow sepals in E. hyemalis, E. cilicica, E. longistipitata and the hybrid E. ×tubergenii; and white sepals in E. sibirica, E. longituba, E. albiflora, E. stellata, E. pungdoensis, E. byunsanensis, and E. pinnatifida. The phylogenetic tree of nrITS formed more subclades than the tree of cpIS, which suggested that nrITS SNPs are useful molecular markers for phylogenetic studies in the genus Eranthis. Only the SNPs of cpIS in E. pungdoensis accessions had a deletion at positions 259–420, and the posterior probability values (PPVs) assigned E. pungdoensis to population 4, which suggested that E. pungdoensis is different from E. byunsanensis. Therefore, E. byunsanensis and E. pungdoensis are considered to be true-to-type based on q-values because the PPVs were greater than 0.9 in both species based on the STRUCTURE analysis of nrITS SNPs. Significant genetic variation in E. stellata collected in Goesan-kun and Mt. Mugap, Korea indicated a potential gene flow among closely related E. byunsanensis, E. pinnatifida, E. sibirica, and E. stellata that could be due to geographic proximity in their distributions. E. stellata from Mt. Mugap showed mixed PPVs for E. stellata and E. byunsanensis, therefore, E. byunsanensis might be a possible hybrid origin for E. stellata collected from Goesan-kun and Mt. Mugap.

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  • 08 May 2019

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The name of Chin-Sung Chang was presented incorrectly. The corrected author list is given above.


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This project was co-funded in part by the “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ01389401)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea awarded to YH Joung and the Swedish Garden Societies (Skånska trädgårdsföreningen, STA Skånekretsen, STA Hallandskretsen, and Trädgårdsamatörerna Göteborg. We thank Dr. Mark S. Roh who had conceived the project, made arrangements for germplasm collection, and worked with all contributors who had in-depth knowledge of all aspects of fieldwork and accession identification. Dr. Roh assisted all authors to prepare the manuscript prior to submission. We thank those who contributed leaf samples for DNA analysis and imaging, and who gave permission to use their images: G.Moen, R. Drew, J. Jilak, B. Żuraw, S. Ritzenfeld, P. Woodward, S.S. Wu, Z-Yu Li, M. Koshioka, J. McKenney, S. Schwartzkopf, S. Pistorello, V. Scariot, V.Zilek, J. Ruksans, JS Chang, JK Lee, EJ Kim, KZ Riu, KH Chung, HJ Yang, NR Cho, and YH Kim. The image of E. pinnatifida was from the internet ( and the image of E. stellata is from Is. Sahkalin (SA IS; Accessed May 17, 2017). The image of Eranthis ×tubergenii is copyrighted by Paige Woodward, Pacific Rim Native Plant Nursery.

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Accession and collection information of the genus Eranthis (DOCX 18 kb)


Sequencing chromatograms of nrITS PCR products of and E. hyemalis IT/LU 2 (A) and E. byunsanensis KR/NB 1 (B). The continuous double peaks shown in (A) and the heterozygous double peak was boxed in (B) (TIFF 806 kb)

Alignment of nrITS sequences among selected accessions (TIFF 18768 kb)

Alignment of cpIS sequences among selected accessions (TIFF 17551 kb)

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Park, S.Y., Jeon, M.J., Ma, S.H. et al. Phylogeny and genetic variation in the genus Eranthis using nrITS and cpIS single nucleotide polymorphisms. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. 60, 239–252 (2019).

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  • Chloroplast trnL-trnF interspacer region
  • Floral morphology
  • Hybrid origin
  • Intraspecific variation
  • Nuclear ITS 1
  • 2 Region
  • STRUCTURE analysis