Capsicum is currently one of the highest value vegetable crops due its richness in vitamins and antioxidants and is frequently commercialized as fresh fruit, dry crushed pepper, paprika oleoresin or pepper paste. The chemical content comprises carotenoids, flavonoids, lipid molecules like fatty acids, triacylglycerides and capsaicinoids as its principal chemotaxonomic markers. However, triacylglycerides and carotenoids are no frequently taken into analytical spectrometric methods due to nonvolatile and extreme low polarity properties. Those molecules are usually extracted and commercialized as oleoresin, and there are gaining attention because it helps to combat nutrient deficiencies. This study monitors the behavior of the pungency value in two real industrial productive crops of Capsicum frutescens (tabasco) and Capsicum annuum (cayenne) during a complete harvest period. A comparison of chemical carotenoid and triacylglycerides profile was carried out by UPLC–PDA–ESI–MS between Capsicum frutescens (tabasco), Capsicum chinense (habanero), Capsicum annuum (jalapeño), and Capsicum annuum (serrano) in two different ripening stages. The authors’ main finding is a strong correlation between plant age and pungency level independent of the size and dehydration state of the fruits. The major carotenoid content was founded in red Tabasco variety, and 12 triacylglycerides and 10 esterified carotenoids are reported along the all fruits treated. Our results present an important and alternative finding for agro-industrial chili pepper producers and marketers who need to better understand the behavior of the pungency value as the principal quality feature, and to discover added-value chemicals like TAG and carotenoids in their products.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Antonious GF, Berke T, Jarret RL (2009) Pungency in Capsicum chinense: variation among countries of origin. J Environ Sci Health B 44:179–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520802539830
Barbero GF, Ruiz AG (2014) Evolution of total and individual capsaicinoids in peppers during ripening of the Cayenne pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.). Food Chem 153:200–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.12.068
Bijttebier S, Zhani K, D’Hondt E, Noten B, Hermans N, Apers S, Voorspoels S (2014) Generic characterization of apolar metabolites in red chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) by orbitrap mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 62:4812–4831. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf500285g
Cali C. de comercio de, n.d. Un negocio picante. Rev. Acción 175:2
Duelund L, Mouritsen OG (2017) Contents of capsaicinoids in chillies grown in Denmark. Food Chem 221:913–918. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.074
Estrada B, Bernal MA (2002) Capsaicinoids in vegetative organs of Capsicum annuum L. in relation to fruiting. J Agric Food Chem 50:1188–1191. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011270j
FAO, 2017. Statistics of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Garruna-Hernandez R, Monforte-Gonzalez M (2013) Enrichment of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases the capsaicinoids content in Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). J Sci Food Agric 93:1385–1388. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5904
Giuffrida D, Dugo P, Torre G, Bignardi C, Cavazza A, Corradini C, Dugo G (2013) Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination. Food Chem 140:794–802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.060
Gurung T, Techawongstien S (2011) Impact of environments on the accumulation of Capsaicinoids in Capsicum spp. HortScience 46(12):1576–1581
Gustavo González A, Ángeles Herrador M (2007) A practical guide to analytical method validation, including measurement uncertainty and accuracy profiles. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 26:227–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2007.01.009
Hornero-Méndez D, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2000) Xanthophyll esterification accompanying carotenoid overaccumulation in chromoplast of Capsicum annuum ripening fruits is a constitutive process and useful for ripeness index. J Agric Food Chem 48:1617–1622. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9912046
Islam MA, Sharma SS (2015) Variability in capsaicinoid content in different landraces of Capsicum cultivated in north-eastern India. Sci Hortic 183:66–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2014.12.011
Iwai K, Suzuki T, Fujiwake H (1979) Formation and accumulation of pungent principle of hot pepper fruits, capsaicin and its analogues, in Capsicum annuun at different growth stages after flowering. Agric Biol Chem 43:5
Kantar MB, Anderson JE, Lucht SA, Mercer K, Bernau V, Case KA, Le NC, Frederiksen MK, DeKeyser HC, Wong ZZ, Hastings JC, Baumler DJ (2016) Vitamin variation in capsicum spp. Provides opportunities to improve nutritional value of human diets. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161464
Kilcrease J, Rodriguez-Uribe L, Richins RD, Arcos JMG, Victorino J, O’Connell MA (2015) Correlations of carotenoid content and transcript abundances for fibrillin and carotenogenic enzymes in Capsicum annum fruit pericarp. Plant Sci 232:57–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.12.014
Mueller-Seitz E, Hiepler C, Petz M (2008) Chili pepper fruits: content and pattern of capsaicinoids in single fruits of different ages. J Agric Food Chem 56:12114–12121. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf802385v
Park J, Kim S, Moon B (2011) Changes in carotenoids, ascorbic acids, and quality characteristics by the pickling of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivated in Korea. J Food Sci 76:C1075–C1080. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02297.x
Secretaría de Agricultura Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación, G., 2017. Producción nacional de chile alcanza 2.3 millones de toneladas
Ruiz-Lau N, Medina-Lara F, Minero-García Y, Zamudio-Moreno E, Guzmán-Antonio A, Echevarría-Machado I, Martínez-Estévez M (2011) Water deficit affects the accumulation of Capsaicinoids in Fruits of Capsicum chinense Jacq. HortScience 46(3):487
Sarpras M, Sharma V, Chhapekar SS, Das J, Kumar A, Yadava SK, Nitin M, Brahma V, Abraham SK, Ramchiary N (2016) Comparative analysis of fruit metabolites and pungency candidate genes expression between Bhut jolokia and other Capsicum Species. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167791
Stewart C, Kang B (2016) The Pun1 gene for pungency in pepper encodes a putative acyltransferase. Plant J. 42:675–688. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02410.x
Tepić A, Zeković Z, Kravić S, Mandić A (2009) Pigment content and fatty acid composition of paprika oleoresins obtained by conventional and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. CyTA—J Food 7:95–102. https://doi.org/10.1080/19476330902940382
Umigai N, Murakami K, Shimizu R, Takeda R, Azuma T (2018) Safety evaluation and plasma carotenoid accumulation in healthy adult Subjects after 12 weeks of paprika oleoresin supplementation. J Oleo Sci 67:225–234. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess17155
Usman M, Rafii M (2014) Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin determination in chili pepper genotypes using ultra-fast liquid chromatography. Molecules 19:6474–6488. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19056474
Zewdie Y, Bosland P (2000) Pungency of Chile (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is affected by node position. HortScience 35(1):1174
The authors want to acknowledge the company HUGO RESTREPO and CIA for all their dedication during the experiment and their help with the pepper crops as well as the agronomical engineers for their support (Grant Numbers CA041349 and Colciencias 043-2017). We also want to thank senior pharmacy student Fabian Botero, who contributed to the project but sadly passed away before its completion.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Penagos-Calvete, D., Guauque-Medina, J., Villegas-Torres, M.F. et al. Analysis of triacylglycerides, carotenoids and capsaicinoids as disposable molecules from Capsicum agroindustry. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. 60, 227–238 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-018-0111-2
- Capsicum annuum
- Capsicum frutescens
- Capsicum chinense
- Capsicum crop
- Pungency variation