Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology

, Volume 59, Issue 4, pp 491–498 | Cite as

Physiological responses of potted Dendrobium orchid to salinity stress

  • Supatida AbdullakasimEmail author
  • Pawanrat Kongpaisan
  • Piyaklao Thongjang
  • Parson Saradhuldhat
Research Report Cultivation Physiology


The effects of salt stress on the growth, flowering, osmotic potential, and cellular Na+, K+, and Cl accumulation were investigated in potted Dendrobium Sonia ‘Earsakul’. Six NaCl solute concentrations with an electrical conductivity of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 15 dS m−1 were applied to the orchids continuously for 30 days. The results showed that NaCl at 2 dS m−1 or greater significantly reduced the number and dry weight of leaf and flower size. At a NaCl dose of 4 dS m−1 or greater, a reduction in the diameter and number of pseudobulb, and inflorescence lengths were observed. With exposure to a high salinity level of 15 dS m−1 NaCl for 30 days, plants had lost nearly 50% of their leaf dry weight and flower quality. In response to salt stress, osmotic adjustment by accumulation of organic solutes was clearly detected when the orchids were treated with 4 dS m−1 NaCl or greater. This caused a decrease of leaf water and osmotic potential. In addition, it appears the Dendrobium orchid has adapted itself to high salinity conditions by limiting Na+ and Cl exportation to the shoot by accumulating these ions in the roots. Dendrobium also maintained a similar level of K+ afflux in their leaves, pseudobulb, and roots compared to the non NaCl treated control. This created extremely high Na+/K+ ratios in the roots at increasing NaCl concentrations. The overall results suggest that the Dendrobium orchid responds to salinity by performing osmotic adjustment and sequestering Na+ or Cl in the roots, preventing their movement to the upper plant parts.


Electrical conductivity Flowering NaCl Osmotic adjustment Osmotic potential Pseudobulb 



We thank ‘Suvarnabhumi Orchids Farm’ at Nakhon Pathom, Thailand for supporting with the plant materials for this study.


  1. Abdullakasim S, Kaewsongsang K, Anusornpornpong P, Saradhuldhat P (2015) Effects of pre-harvested N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N’-phenylurea (CPPU) spraying on the improvement of flower quality of Dendrobium Sonia ‘Earsakul’. J Appl Hort 17:140–144Google Scholar
  2. Abdul-Qados AMS (2011) Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.). J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 10:7–15Google Scholar
  3. Bernstain N, Ioffe M, Zilberstaine M (2001) Salt-stress effects on avocado rootstock growth I. Establishing criteria for determination of shoot growth sensitivity on the stress. Plant Soil 233:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhandal IS, Malik CP (1988) Potassium estimation, uptake, and its role in the physiology and metabolism of flowering plants. Int Rev Cytol 110:205–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumwald E, Aharon GS, Apse MP (2000) Sodium transport in plant cells. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 1465:140–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai X, Youping S, Starman T, Hall C, Niu G (2014) Response of 18 Earth-Kind®rose cultivars to salt stress. HortScience 49:544–549Google Scholar
  7. Campos CAB, Fernandes PD, Gheyi HR, Blanco FF, Gonçalves CB, Campos SAF (2006) Yield and fruit quality of industrial tomato under saline irrigation. Sci Agric 63:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cela J, Munné-Bosch S (2012) Acclimation to high salinity in the invasive CAM plant Aptenia cordifolia. Plant Ecol Divers 5:403–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Da Silva EC, Nogueira RJMC, De Araújo FP, De Melo NF, De Azevedo Neto AD (2008) Physiological responses to salt stress in young umbu plants. Environ Exp Bot 63:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Lucia B, Mancini L, Ventrelli A (2003) Effects of nutrient solution salinity (NaCl) on the yield level and quality characteristics in Lilium soilless culture. Acta Hortic 609:401–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenway H, Munns R (1980) Mechanism of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31:149–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gupta B, Huang B (2014) Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants: physiological, biochemical, and molecular characterization. Int J Genom. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gupta NK, Meena SK, Gupta S, Khandelwal SK (2002) Gas exchange, membrane permeability and ion uptake in two species of Indian jujube differing in salt tolerance. Photosynthetica 40:535–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hajlaoui H, El Ayeb N, Pierre Garrec J, Denden M (2010) Differential effects of salt stress on osmotic adjustment and solutes allocation on the basis of root and leaf tissue senescence of two silage maize (Zea mays L.) varieties. Ind Crops Prod 31:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hall D, Evans AR, Newbury HJ, Pritchard J (2006) Functional analysis of CHX21: a putative sodium transporter in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 57:1201–1210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Horie T, Hauser F, Schroeder JI (2009) HKT transporter-mediated salinity resistance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and monocot crop plants. Trends Plant Sci 14:660–668CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu Y, Schmidhalter U (2005) Drought and salinity: a comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition of plants. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168:541–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang Z, Zhao L, Chen D, Liang M, Liu Z, Shao H, Long X (2013) Salt stress encourages proline accumulation by regulating proline biosynthesis and degradation in Jerusalem artichoke plantlets. PLoS ONE 8:e62085CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Inskeep WP, Bloom PR (1985) Extinction coefficients of chlorophyll a and b in N,N-dimethylformamide and 80% acetone. Plant Physiol 77:483–485CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Jaarsma R, de Vries RSM, de Boer AH (2013) Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars. PLOS One 8:e60183CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Kameli A, Lösel DM (1995) Contribution of carbohydrates and other solutes to osmotic adjustment in wheat leaves under water stress. J Plant Physiol 145:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khanom T (2016) Effect of salinity on food security in the context of interior coast of Bangladesh. Ocean Coast Manag 130:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ligate EJ, Kitila MM, Chen C, Wu C (2017) Impacts of salt water intrusion on maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) production under climate change scenarios in Bagamoyo district–Tanzania. Univers J Agric Res 5:148–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maathuis FJM, Ahmad I, Patishtan J (2014) Regulation of Na+ fluxes in plants. Front Plant Sci 5:467CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Maggio A, Raimondi G, Martino A, De Pascale S (2007) Salt stress response in tomato beyond the salinity tolerance threshold. Environ Exp Bot 59:276–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell Environ 25:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Netondo GW, Onyango JC, Beck E (2004) Sorghum and salinity: II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum under salt stress. Crop Sci 44:806–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ng CKY, Hew CS (2000) Orchid pseudobulbs—‘false’ bulbs with a genuine importance in orchid growth and survival. Sci Hortic 83:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shabala S, Cuin TA (2008) Potassium transport and plant salt tolerance. Physiol Plant 133:651–669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Shangguan Z, Shao M, Dyckmans J (1999) Interaction of osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis in winter wheat under soil drought. J Plant Physiol 154:753–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sharma N, Gupta NK, Gupta S (2005) Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and oxidative stress tolerance in contrasting wheat genetypes. Photosynthetica 43:609–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Silveira JAG, Melo ARB, Viégas RA, Oliveira JTA (2001) Salinity-induced effects on nitrogen assimilation related to growth in cowpea plants. Environ Exp Bot 46:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tester N, Davenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 91:503–527CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Turner NC (1981) Techniques and experimental approaches for the measurement of plant water status. Plant Soil 58:339–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tuteja N (2007) Mechanisms of high salinity tolerance in plants. Methods Enzymol 428:419–438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Viégas RA, Queiroz JE, Silva LMM, Silveira JAG, Rocha IMA, Viégas PRA (2003) Plant growth, accumulation and solute partitioning of four forest species under salt stress. Rev Bras Eng Agric Amb 7:258–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang YT (1998) Impact of salinity and media on growth and flowering of a hybrid Phalaenopsis orchid. HortScience 33:247–250Google Scholar
  38. Zapryanova N, Atanassova B (2009) Effects of salt stress on growth and flowering of ornamental annual species. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 23:177–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang J, Nguyen H, Blum A (1999) Genetic analysis of osmotic adjustment in crop plants. J Exp Bot 50:291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Supatida Abdullakasim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pawanrat Kongpaisan
    • 1
  • Piyaklao Thongjang
    • 1
  • Parson Saradhuldhat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng SaenKasetsart UniversityKamphaeng SaenThailand

Personalised recommendations