Correlation analysis between the karyotypes and phenotypic traits of Chinese cymbidium cultivars

  • Huijuan Ning
  • Suyan Ao
  • Yirong Fan
  • Jianxin Fu
  • Chuanmei Xu
Research Report
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Abstract

Chinese cymbidium are a group of valuable ornamental plants that is formed by genetically distinct species. Currently, a robust Chinese cymbidium classification system, such as that based on cytotaxonomy, is lacking. To investigate the genetic variation within Chinese cymbidium, we selected 28 individual Chinese cymbidium cultivars as experimental material to perform karyotype analysis. The results showed that chromosome number among these 28 cultivars was constant and diploid (i.e., 2n = 40). In addition, no satellite chromosomes were observed. The karyotypes were more symmetrical and consisted mainly of 1B and 2B types with a small number of 2A and 2C types. Based on principal component analysis, the five karyotype parameters with the highest classification values were screened, which revealed that the mean of long to short arm ratio, the mean relative length of long arms, and the asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes (As.K.) were reliable parameters for use in Chinese cymbidium cytotaxonomy. Cluster analysis of karyotype parameters successfully identified cultivars of the bamboo petal, narcissus petal, and plum petal types, thus confirming the accuracy of the cytological classification system. Furthermore, flower traits of Chinese cymbidium were strongly correlated with karyotype parameters. Overall, we conclude that karyotype parameters can provide valuable information for studies on the classification, identification, and genetic diversity of Chinese cymbidium.

Keywords

Chinese cymbidium Karyotype parameter Flower trait Leaf trait Correlation analysis Cytotaxonomy 

List of symbols

As.K.

Asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes

BLUF

Bract length in upper flowers

CBLOLUI

Comparison between bract length and ovary length in upper inflorescences

DUS

Distinctness-uniformity-stability

F

Florescences

FNPS

Flower number per scape

GMIS

Growth morphology of inflorescences on the scape

LFSL

Low flower stalk length

LG

Leaf glossiness

LP

Leaf properties

LRLS

Length ratio of longest to shortest chromosomes

LS

Leaf shape

LW

Leaf width

m

Median-centromere chromosome

MAR

Mean of long to short arm ratio

MRLLA

Mean relative length of long arms

P

Pseudobulbs

PH

Plant height

POP

Presence of orchid paste

PPJ

Presence of petiole joints

PSSPL

Presence of shining small papillae on the labellum

PT

Petal type

SH

Scape height

SLBI

Sheath length at the base of inflorescences

SLM

Serrated leaf margins

sm

Submedian-centromere chromosome

st

Subterminal-centromere chromosome

VAR

Variation of long to short arm ratio

VRL

Variance of relative length of chromosomes

WLVO

Whether the leaf vein is obvious

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Flower Breeding of New Varieties Project for Zhejiang Science and Technology Department (Grant number 2009C12087).

Supplementary material

13580_2018_10_MOESM1_ESM.docx (879 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 878 kb)
13580_2018_10_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 15 kb)

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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huijuan Ning
    • 1
  • Suyan Ao
    • 1
  • Yirong Fan
    • 1
  • Jianxin Fu
    • 1
  • Chuanmei Xu
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Landscape ArchitectureZhejiang Agriculture & Forestry UniversityLin’anChina
  2. 2.School of Forestry and Bio-technologyZhejiang Agriculture & Forestry UniversityLin’anChina

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