RETRACTED ARTICLE: Effect of calcium and silicate application on pathogenicity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Zantedeschia spp.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of calcium and silicate on plant growth and resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Zantedeschia aethiopica ‘Childsiana’. Calcium and silicate as basal fertilizer (mixed with soil before cultivation) were applied at 0, 100, 200, or 400 kg·10 a−1, respectively. Potassium silicate (K2O·nSiO2) and CaCl2 foliar application were applied 3 times every 2 weeks at 0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2%, respectively at the middle stage of growth on the Zantedeschia. The level of resistant to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora was tested by leaf disk test at blooming stage. The higher concentration of calcium and silicate in the foliar application and basal application resulted in vigorous leaf growth, hardness of petiole and flower stalk and in fresh weight. The resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora was more effective in CaCl2 foliar treatment than the basal fertilization treatment. Foliar treatment at 0.2% CaCl2 was the most effective against the resistance of Erwinia carotovara subsp. carotovora. Also, the level of resistant to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora was higher in proportion to the silicate application rate both in foliar and basal application of fertilizer. In the analysis of SEM, it was observed that at high concentration of silicate there was more accumulates of Si between cell wall, vascular bundle, and companion cell around sieve tube element. It was consistent with the result of hardness of petiole and flower stalk.
Additional key wordsbacterial soft rot calla lily disease resistance silicon
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