RETRACTED ARTICLE: Effect of calcium and silicate application on pathogenicity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Zantedeschia spp.
- 401 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of calcium and silicate on plant growth and resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Zantedeschia aethiopica ‘Childsiana’. Calcium and silicate as basal fertilizer (mixed with soil before cultivation) were applied at 0, 100, 200, or 400 kg·10 a−1, respectively. Potassium silicate (K2O·nSiO2) and CaCl2 foliar application were applied 3 times every 2 weeks at 0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2%, respectively at the middle stage of growth on the Zantedeschia. The level of resistant to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora was tested by leaf disk test at blooming stage. The higher concentration of calcium and silicate in the foliar application and basal application resulted in vigorous leaf growth, hardness of petiole and flower stalk and in fresh weight. The resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora was more effective in CaCl2 foliar treatment than the basal fertilization treatment. Foliar treatment at 0.2% CaCl2 was the most effective against the resistance of Erwinia carotovara subsp. carotovora. Also, the level of resistant to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora was higher in proportion to the silicate application rate both in foliar and basal application of fertilizer. In the analysis of SEM, it was observed that at high concentration of silicate there was more accumulates of Si between cell wall, vascular bundle, and companion cell around sieve tube element. It was consistent with the result of hardness of petiole and flower stalk.
Additional key wordsbacterial soft rot calla lily disease resistance silicon
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aoki, M. and M. Ogawa. 1977. Effect of silicon on the blossom-end rot and growth of tomato. J. Soil Sci. Manure 48:156–159.Google Scholar
- Azza, A.M., H.M. Mona, and G.A. Nahed. 2011. Response of Schefflera arboricola L. to gypsum and sulphur application irrigated with different levels of saline water. Aus. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 5:121–129.Google Scholar
- Cho, H.R., J.H. Lim, K.J. Yun, R.C. Snijder, D.H. Goo, H.K. Rhee, K.S. Kim, H.Y. Joung, and Y.J. Kim. 2004 Virulence variation in 20 isolates of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora on Zantedeschia cultivars in Korea. Acta Hort. 673:653–659.Google Scholar
- Gillman, J.H. and D.C. Zlesak. 2000. Mist applications of sodium silicate to rose (Rosa L. × ‘Nearly Wild’) cuttings decrease leaflet drop and increase rooting. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 35:773.Google Scholar
- Kamenidou, S., T.J. Cavins, and S.M. Marek. 2008. Silicon supplements affect horticultural traits of greenhouse-produced ornamental sunflowers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 43:236–239.Google Scholar
- Kuehny, J.S. 2000. Calla history and culture. Hort. Tech. 10:267–274.Google Scholar
- Maekawa, K., K. Watanabe, T. Kanto, M. Aino, and M. Saigusa. 2003. Effect of soluble silicic acid on suppression of rice leaf blast. Jap. J. S. Sci. Plant Nutr. 74:293–299.Google Scholar
- Modisane, P.C. 2007. Yield and quality of potatoes as affected by calcium nutrition, temperature and humidity. M. Sc. Thesis. University of Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
- Sticher, L., B. Mauch-Mani, and J.P. Metraux. 1997. Systemic acquired resistance. Ann. Rev. Plant Path. 35:235–270.Google Scholar
- Younis, A., A. Riaz, S.S. Khosa, A. Rayit, and S. Yasmeen. 2011. Effect of foliar application of macro and micro nutrients on growth and flowering of Gerbera jamesonii L. Amer-Eur. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 11:736–757.Google Scholar
- Younis, A., A. Riaz, S. Ikram, T. Nawaz, M. Hameed, S. Fatima, R. Batool, and F. Ahmad. 2013. Salinity-induced structural and functional changes in three cultivars of Alternanthera bettzikiana (Regel) G. Nicholson. Turk. J. Agri. For. 37:710–724.Google Scholar
- Yu, S., W. Yichao, J.F. Timothy, and G. Haijun. 2013. Silicon decreases chloride transport in rice (Oryzasativa L.) in saline conditions. J. Plant Phy. 1:18.Google Scholar