Table 1 Four industrial revolutions

From: Mining productivity and the fourth industrial revolution

  Approximate start date Features Key industries
1 1760 Coal, steam, power, iron Textiles, railways, construction
2 1870 Electrification, steel, mechanisation, oil Cars, telephones, power, generation, electrical appliances
3 1970 Digitisation, electronics, semiconductors Computers, Internet, media, ICT, aerospace, chemicals
4 Now Fusion of physical, digital and biological technologies Robotics, AI, biotech, IoTs, 3D printing, nanotech, green energy
  1. Source: Author, based on a variety of sources