Skip to main content
Log in

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based method for rapid and sensitive detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in citrus and the psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Cite this article


Citrus greening is a destructive disease of citrus in India and many citrus-growing regions around the world. The disease is associated with three Gram negative, fastidious and phloem-limited bacteria in the genus ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’. ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ is the most wide spread and destructive species. Currently, there is no effective control method available to manage this disease, thus rapid detection, control of its psyllid vector population and removal of affected trees are commonly recommended to manage citrus greening . The present study was conducted to standardize a rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) protocol to detect ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ in citrus and the psyllid vector Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. A set of six primers were identified from 16S rDNA region of Indian ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ and the amplification reaction was optimized to 65 °C for 60 min. The amplified DNA produced a ladder-like band pattern on agarose gels, and visually produced an intense green color upon staining with SYBR green. The results were subsequently validated by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and sequencing of the amplicon. The optimized LAMP protocol is rapid, highly sensitive and cost-effective method for the early detection of citrus greening in citrus groves and nurseries, and could be performed even in small laboratories located in remote places with limited resources.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3





Loop-mediated isothermal amplification


Polymerase chain reaction


Ultra violet


  • Bové JM (2006) Huanglongbing: a destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus. J Plant Pathol 88(1):7–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Brlansky RH, Rogers ME (2007). Citrus Huanglongbing: Understanding the Vector-Pathogen Interaction for Disease Management. Online. APSnet Features. doi: 10.1094/APSnetFeature-2007-1207

  • da Graça JV (1991) Citrus greening disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 29:109–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghosh DK, Bhose S, Mukherjee K, Baranwal VK (2013) Sequence and evolutionary analysis of ribosomal DNA from Huanglongbing (HLB) isolates of western India. Phytoparasitica 41:295–305

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghosh DK, Bhose S, Motghare M, Warghane AJ, Mukherjee K, Ghosh DK Sr, Sharma AK, Ladaniya MS, Gowda S (2015) Genetic Diversity of the Indian Populations of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ based on the tandem repeat variability in a Genomic Locus. Phytopathology 105:1043–1049

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gottwald TR (2010) Current epidemiological understanding of citrus Huanglongbing. Annu Rev Phytopathol 48:119–139

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grafton-Cardwell EE, Stelinski LL, Stansly PA (2013) Biology and management of Asian citrus psyllid, vector of the huanglongbing pathogens. Annu Rev Entomol 58:413–432

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hung TH, Hung SC, Chen CN, Hsu MH, Su HJ (2004) Detection by PCR of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing in vector psyllids: application to the study of vector-pathogen relationships. Plant Pathol 53:96–102

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Huys G, Vanhoutte T, Joossens M, Mahious AS, De Brandt E, Vermeire S, Swings J (2008) Co-amplification of eukaryotic DNA with 16S rRNA gene-based PCR primers: possible consequences for population fingerprinting of complex microbial communities. Curr Microbiol 56:553–557

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jagoueix S, Bové JM, Garnier M (1994) The phloem limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Int J of Syst Bact 44:379–386

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jagoueix S, Bové JM, Garnier M (1996) PCR detection of the two liberobacter species associated with greening disease of citrus. Mol Cell Probes 10:43–50

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jagoueix S, Bove JM, Garnier M (1997) Comparison of the 16S/23S ribosomal intergenic regions of ‘Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticum’ and ‘Candidatus  Liberobacter africanum,’ the two species associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease.  Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:224–227

  • Manjunath KL, Halbert SE, Ramadugu C, Webb S, Lee RF (2008) Detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Diaphorina citri and its importance in the management of citrus huanglongbing in Florida. Phytopathology 98(4):387–396

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Manjunath KL, Ramadugu C, Rodriguez E, Kubota R, Shibata S, Hall DG, Roose ML, Jenkins D, Lee RF (2015) A rapid field detection system for citrus huanglongbing associated ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ from the psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and its implications in disease management. Crop Prot 68:41–48. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2014.10.026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Okuda M, Matsumoto M, Tanaka Y, Subandiyah S, Iwanami T (2005) Characterization of the tufB-secE-nusG-rplKAJL-rpoB gene cluster of the citrus greening organism and detection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Plant Dis 89:705–711

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Poole CB, Tanner NA, Zhang Y, Evans TC Jr, Carlow CK (2012) Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6, e1948. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001948 PNTD-D-12-00911

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Rigano LA, Malamud F, Orce IG, Filippone MP, Marano MR, do Amaral AM, Castagnaro AP, Vojnov AA (2014) Rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by loop mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick. BMC Microbiol 14:86. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-14-86

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Tatineni S, Sagaram US, Gowda S, Robertson CJ, Dawson WO, Iwanami T, Wang N (2008) In planta distribution of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ as revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. Phytopathology 98:592–599

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Teixeira DC, Danet JL, Eveillard S, Martins EC, Jesus Junior WC, Yamamoto PT, Lopes SA, Bassanezi RB, Ayres AJ, Saillard C, Bove JM (2005) Citrus huanglongbing in Sao Paulo State, Brazil: PCR detection of the ‘Candidatus’ Liberibacter species associated with the disease. Mol Cell Probes 19(3):173–179

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang N, Trivedi P (2013) Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges. Phytopathology 103(7):652–665

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dilip Kumar Ghosh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ghosh, D.K., Bhose, S., Warghane, A. et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based method for rapid and sensitive detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in citrus and the psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol. 25, 219–223 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: