Brazilian Journal of Physics

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 227–241 | Cite as

Bioconvection in Second Grade Nanofluid Flow Containing Nanoparticles and Gyrotactic Microorganisms

  • Noor Saeed Khan
General and Applied Physics


The bioconvection in steady second grade nanofluid thin film flow containing nanoparticles and gyrotactic microorganisms is considered using passively controlled nanofluid model boundary conditions. A real-life system evolves under the flow and various taxis. The study is initially proposed in the context of gyrotactic system, which is used as a key element for the description of complex bioconvection patterns and dynamics in such systems. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary ones through the similarity variables and solved analytically via homotopy analysis method (HAM). The solution is expressed through graphs and illustrated which show the influences of all the parameters.


Gravity-driven Thin film Second grade nanofluid Bioconvection Passively controlled nanofluid model Gyrotactic microorganisms Convective boundary conditions Homotopy analysis method 



The author is extremely grateful to the honorable reviewer for his excellent and informative comments which have certainly served to clarify and improve the present work.

Author Contributions

NSK modeled the problem and solved. NSK also wrote the paper. The author read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding Information

The author is thankful to the Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan for providing the technical and financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Competing interests

The author declares that he has no competing interests.

Author Statement

The author agrees with the submission of the manuscript, and the material presented in the manuscript has not been previously published, nor it is simultaneously under consideration by any other journal.


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Copyright information

© Sociedade Brasileira de Física 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsAbdul Wali Khan UniversityMardanPakistan

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