Automatic extraction of vertebral endplates from scoliotic radiographs using customized filter

Abstract

Purpose

The scoliosis diagnosing system needs radio-graphic information in terms of spinal curvature estimated using Cobb’s definition. The evaluation process and treatment analysis depends on the reliability and reproducibility of the spine curvature in the frontal view.

Methods

Manual identification of end vertebrae and other anatomical features required for the estimation of spinal curvature causes variability and unreliability at higher rate. This paper proposes an automated system to extract the required anatomical features using customized filter. The customized filter used in this paper is a combination of anisotropic, sigmoid and differential filter. Combination of these filters automatically extracts the anatomical features in terms of required vertebral endplates. Automatic identification of these endplates eliminates the human intervention involved in the quantification of Cobb angle.

Results and Conclusions

Analysis of the results reveals significant difference between the observer variability between manual, computer assisted and computerized image understanding system in terms of inter and intra cross correlation coefficient ratio (ICCR).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Refrerences

  1. [1]

    Tanure MC, Pinheiro P, Oliveira AS. Reliability assessment of cobb angle measurements using manual and digital methods. Spine J. 2010; 10(9):769–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    Vrtovec T, Pernus F, Likar B. A review of methods for quantitative evaluation of spinal curvature. Eur Spine J. 2009; 18(5):593–607.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    Kuklo TR, Potter BK, Polly DW Jr, O’Brien MF, Schroeder TM, Lenke LG. Reliability analysis for manual adolescent idiopathic scoliosis measurements. Spine. 2005; 30(4):444–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    Cobb R. Outline for study of scoliosis. In American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Instructional Course Lectures. St Louis, CV Mosby. 1948; 261–75.

    Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    Gstoettner M, Sekyra K, Walochnik N, Winter P, Wachter R, Bach CM. Inter- and intra-observer reliability assessment of the cobb angle: manual versus digital measurement tools. Eur Spine J. 2007; 16(10):1587–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    Jeffries BS, Tarlton M, De Smet AA, Dwyer SJ 3rd, Brower AC. Computerized measurement and analysis of scoliosis: a more accurate representation of the shape of the curve. Radiology. 1980; 134(2):381–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    Kuklo TR, Potter BK, Schroeder TM, O’Brien MF. Comparison of manual and digital measurements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2006; 31(11):1240–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    Cheung J, Wever DJ, Veldhuizen AG, Klein JP, Verdonck B, Nijlunsing R, Cool JC, Van Horn JR. The reliability of quantitative analysis on digital image of the scoliotic spine. Eur Spine J. 2002; 11(6):535–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    Allen S, Parent E, Khorasani M, Hill DL, Lou E, Raso JV. Validity and reliability of active shape models for the estimation of cobb angle in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Digit Imaging. 2008; 21(2):208–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    Modi HN, Chen T, Suh SW, Mehta S, Srinivasalu S, Yang JH, Song HR. Observer reliability between juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in measurement of stable cobb’s angle. Eur Spine J. 2009; 18(1):52–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    Segev E, Hemo Y, Wientroub S, Ovadia D, Fishkin M, Steinberg D, Hayek S. Intra and inter ob server reliability analysis of digital radiographic measurements for pediatric orthopedic parameters using a novel pacs integrated computer software program. J Child Orthop. 2010; 4(4):331–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    Perona P, Malik J. Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion. IEEE T Pattern Anal. 1990; 12(7):629–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to H. Anitha.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Anitha, H., Karunakar, A.K. & Dinesh, K.V.N. Automatic extraction of vertebral endplates from scoliotic radiographs using customized filter. Biomed. Eng. Lett. 4, 158–165 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13534-014-0129-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Vertebral endplate
  • Cobb angle
  • Scoliosis
  • Diffusion filters
  • Sigmoid filters
  • Derivative filters