Levels, Distributions and Health Risk Assessment of Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic Found in Drinking Groundwater of Dehgolan’s Villages, Iran

  • Hadi Rezaei
  • Ahmad Zarei
  • Bahram Kamarehie
  • Ali Jafari
  • Yadolah Fakhri
  • Farzam Bidarpoor
  • Mohammad Amin Karami
  • Mansoureh Farhang
  • Mansour GhaderpooriEmail author
  • Hossein Sadeghi
  • Naseh Shalyari



Water contamination by heavy metals has become a serious environmental issue due to its serious threat to human health. The current research was conducted to determine heavy metal concentrations in drinking groundwater samples in villages of Dehgolan, western Iran and to ascertain the potential health risk in terms of estimated non-carcinogenic risks by hazard quotient and hazard index and carcinogenic risk to the residents living in these areas from exposure to the metals via drinking water ingestion and skin contact routes.


Health risks were conducted for resident adults based on the USEPA health risk assessment guidelines.


The mean values of Pb, Cd, and As in the groundwater samples were 0.0026 mg/L (ranging from 0.0020–0.0030 mg/L), 0.0009 mg/L (ranging from 0.0007–0.0010 mg/L), and 0.0068 mg/L (ranging from 0.0011–0.0360 mg/L), respectively. Compared to the WHO drinking water guidelines for Pb, Cd and As, virtually all the trace elements in the drinking water of villages in the present study could meet the requirements of the regulation except As in some villages.


The results of the study obtained in all cases demonstrated that the non-carcinogenic risk was below the safe limit. The calculated carcinogenic risk for adults obtained was all lower than USEPA’s acceptable cancer risk range of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6, suggesting no potential carcinogenic risk from drinking water consumption.


Heavy metals Health risk Drinking water Dehgolan’s villages 


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The authors would like to thank Professor Mehdi Zarrei in Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada for valuable comments and suggestions, allowing us to improve this paper.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Environmental Risk Assessment and Health Science and Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hadi Rezaei
    • 1
  • Ahmad Zarei
    • 2
  • Bahram Kamarehie
    • 3
  • Ali Jafari
    • 3
  • Yadolah Fakhri
    • 4
  • Farzam Bidarpoor
    • 5
  • Mohammad Amin Karami
    • 3
  • Mansoureh Farhang
    • 2
  • Mansour Ghaderpoori
    • 3
    Email author
  • Hossein Sadeghi
    • 6
  • Naseh Shalyari
    • 7
  1. 1.Health Network of SanandajKurdistan University of Medical SciencesSanandajIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthGonabad University of Medical SciencesGonabadIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health and NutritionLorestan University of Medical SciencesKhorramabadIran
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Student Research Committee, School of Public HealthShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Deputy of HealthKurdistan University of Medical SciencesSanandajIran
  6. 6.Health Network of DehgolanKurdistan University of Medical SciencesSanandajIran
  7. 7.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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