Demography

pp 1–26 | Cite as

Gender and the Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Attainment of Black-White Couples

Article

Abstract

Including black-white couples in the study of residential stratification accentuates gendered power disparities within couples that favor men over women, which allows for the analysis of whether the race of male partners in black-white couples is associated with the racial and ethnic composition of their neighborhoods. I investigate this by combining longitudinal data between 1985 and 2015 from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics linked to neighborhood- and metropolitan-level data compiled from four censuses. Using these data, I assess the mobility of black male–white female and white male–black female couples out of and into neighborhoods defined respectively by their levels of whites, blacks, and ethnoracial diversity. My results show that the race of the male partner in black-white couples tends to align with the racial and ethnic composition of the neighborhoods where these couples reside. This finding highlights that the racial hierarchy within the United States affects the residential mobility and attainment of black-white couples, but its influence is conditioned by the race and gender composition of these couples.

Keywords

Mixed-race couples Gender Residential mobility Neighborhoods 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Kyle Crowder, Stewart Tolnay, Charles Hirschman, Mark Ellis, Christina Hughes, Tim Heaton, Cardell Jacobsen, the Editors of Demography, and anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments on earlier versions of this article.

Supplementary material

13524_2018_648_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (296 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 295 kb)

References

  1. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  2. Bialik, K. (2017). Key facts about race and marriage, 50 years after Loving v. Virginia. Pew Research Center, FactTank. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/
  3. Boyle, P., Feng, Z., & Gayle, V. (2009). A new look at family migration and women’s employment status. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, L. A., & Moore, E. G. (1970). The intra-urban migration process: A perspective. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 52, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruch, E. E., & Mare, R. D. (2006). Neighborhood choice and neighborhood change. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 667–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charles, C. Z. (2000). Neighborhood racial-composition preferences: Evidence from a multiethnic metropolis. Social Problems, 47, 379–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charles, C. Z. (2003). The dynamics of racial residential segregation. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 167–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, W. A. V. (2007). Race, class, and place: Evaluating mobility outcomes for African Americans. Urban Affairs Review, 42, 295–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cooke, T. J., Boyle, P., Couch, K., & Feijten, P. (2009). A longitudinal analysis of family migration and the gender gap in earnings in the United States and Great Britain. Demography, 46, 147–167.Google Scholar
  10. Coulter, R., Van Ham, M., & Feijten, P. (2012). Partner (dis)agreement on moving desires and the subsequent moving behaviour of couples. Population, Space and Place, 18, 16–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crowder, K., Pais, J., & South, S. J. (2012). Neighborhood diversity, metropolitan constraints, and household migration. American Sociological Review, 77, 325–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2008). White flight: Spatial dynamics of the effects of local and extralocal racial conditions on neighborhood out-migration. American Sociological Review, 73, 792–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalmage, H. M. (2000). Tripping on the color line: Black-white multiracial families in a racially divided world. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Duncan, O. D., & Duncan, B. (1957). The Negro population of Chicago: A study of residential succession. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Elder, G. H., Shanahan, M. J., & Jennings, J. A. (2015). Human development in time and place. In R. M. Lerner, M. Bornstein, & T. Leventhal (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed., Vol. 4, pp. 6–54). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  16. Ellis, M., Holloway, S. R., Wright, R., & Fowler, C. S. (2012). Agents of change: Mixed-race households and the dynamics of neighborhood segregation in the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102, 549–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellis, M., Wright, R., & Parks, V. (2006). The immigrant household and spatial assimilation: Partnership, nativity, and neighborhood location. Urban Geography, 27, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farley, R., Shuman, H., Bianchi, S., Colasanto, D., & Hatchett, S. (1978). Chocolate city, vanilla suburbs: Will the trend toward racially separate communities continue? Social Science Research, 7, 319–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fiemster, C. N. (2011). Southern horrors: Women and the politics of rape and lynching. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Frey, W. H. (2015). Diversity explosion: How new racial demographics are remaking America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  21. Fryer, R. G., Jr. (2007). Guess who’s been coming to dinner? Trends in interracial marriage over the 20th century. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(2), 71–90.Google Scholar
  22. Gabriel, R. (2016). A middle ground? Residential mobility and attainment of mixed-race couples. Demography, 53, 165–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. GeoLytics. (2013). Neighborhood Change Database [Database]. East Brunswick, NJ: GeoLytics, Inc. Retrieved from www.geolytics.com/USCensus,Neighborhood-Change-Database-1970-2000,Products.asp
  24. Harris, D. R. (1999). “Property values drop when blacks move in, because. . .”: Racial and socioeconomic determinants of neighborhood desirability. American Sociological Review, 64, 461–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heckman, J. J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica, 47, 153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holloway, S. R., Ellis, M., Wright, R., & Hudson, M. (2005). Partnering “out” and fitting in: Residential segregation and the neighbourhood contexts of mixed-race households. Population, Space and Place, 11, 299–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Houston, S., Wright, R., Ellis, M., Holloway, S., & Hudson, M. (2005). Places of possibility: Where mixed-race partners meet. Progress in Human Geography, 29, 700–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jargowsky, P. A. (1997). Poverty and place: Ghettos, barrios, and the American city. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  29. Kalmijn, M., & Flap, H. (2001). Assortative meeting and mating: Unintended consequences of organized settings for partner choices. Social Forces, 79, 1289–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kamp Dush, C. M, & Amato, P. R. (2005). Consequences of relationship well-being. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 605–627.Google Scholar
  31. Krysan, M., Couper, M. P., Farley, R., & Forman, T. A. (2009). Does race matter in neighborhood preferences? Results from a video experiment. American Journal of Sociology, 115, 527–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Krysan, M., & Farley, R. (2002). The residential preferences of blacks: Do they explain persistent segregation? Social Forces, 80, 937–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu, H., & Umberson, D. J. (2011). The times they are a changin’: Marital status and health differentials from 1972 to 2003. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Logan, J. R., & Alba, R. D. (1993). Locational returns to human capital: Minority access to suburban community resources. Demography, 30, 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Logan, J. R., & Stults, B. J. (2011). The persistence of segregation in the metropolis: New findings from the 2010 census (US2010 Project report). Providence, RI: Brown University.Google Scholar
  36. Logan, J. R., & Zhang, C. (2010). Global neighborhoods: New pathways to diversity and separation. American Journal of Sociology, 115, 1069–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Logan, J. R., & Zhang, W. (2011). Global neighborhoods: New evidence from census 2010 (US2010 Project report). Providence, RI: Brown University.Google Scholar
  38. Long, L. (1988). Migration and residential mobility in the United States. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  39. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Massey, D. S., & Mullan, B. P. (1984). Processes of Hispanic and black spatial assimilation. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 836–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Massey, D. S., & Tannen, J. (2016). Segregation, race, and the social worlds of rich and poor. In I. Kirsch & H. Braun (Eds.), The dynamics of opportunity in America: Evidence and perspectives (pp. 13–33). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mulder, C. H. (2007). The family context and residential choice: A challenge for new research. Population, Space and Place, 13, 265–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pais, J., South, S. J., & Crowder, K. (2012). Metropolitan heterogeneity and minority neighborhood attainment: Spatial assimilation or place stratification? Social Problems, 59, 258–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Quillian, L. (2002). Why is black-white residential segregation so persistent? Evidence on three theories from migration data. Social Science Research, 31, 197–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Quillian, L. (2015). A comparison of traditional and discrete-choice approaches to the analysis of residential mobility and locational attainment. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 660, 240–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Romano, R. C. (2003). Race mixing: Black-white marriage in postwar America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Rothstein, R. (2017). The color of law: A forgotten history of how our government segregated America. New York, NY: Liveright Publishing.Google Scholar
  48. Rugh, J. S., Albright, L., & Massey, D. S. (2015). Race, space, and cumulative disadvantage: A case study of the subprime lending collapse. Social Problems, 62, 186–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharkey, P. (2013). Stuck in place: Urban neighborhoods and the end of progress toward racial equality. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Spring, A., Ackert, E., Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2017). Influence of proximity to kin on residential mobility and destination choice: Examining local movers in metropolitan areas. Demography, 54, 1277–1304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. StataCorp. (2015). Stata statistical software: Release 14. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
  52. Turner, M. A., Santos, R., Levy, D. K., Wissoker, D., Aranda, C., Pitingolo, R., & Urban Institute. (2013). Housing discrimination against racial and ethnic minorities 2012 . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.Google Scholar
  53. U.S. Census Bureau. (2015). Table FG3: Married couple family groups, by presence of own children under 18, and age, earnings, education, and race and Hispanic origin of both spouses: 2015 [Data set]. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  54. Wang, W. (2012). The rise of intermarriage: Rates, characteristics vary by race and gender (Social & Demographic Trends report). Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  55. Wright, R., Ellis, M., & Holloway, S. (2011). Where black-white couples live. Urban Geography, 32, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wright, R., Holloway, S., & Ellis, M. (2013). Gender and the neighborhood location of mixed-race couples. Demography, 50, 393–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wright, R., Houston, S., Ellis, M., Holloway, S., & Hudson, M. (2003). Crossing racial lines: Geographies of mixed-race partnering and multiraciality in the United States. Progress in Human Geography, 27, 457–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

Personalised recommendations