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Table 2 Mean of the absolute percentage errors (MAPE) for e 0 and \( {e}_0^{\dagger } \) over all validation settings by country and method

From: Lifespan Disparity as an Additional Indicator for Evaluating Mortality Forecasts

Country and Measure Method
Lee-Carter Lee-Carter, Rotated (Li et al.) Bohk and Rau
Italy
e 0 0.011 0.011 0.004
\( {e}_0^{\dagger } \) 0.027 0.019 0.024
Japan
e 0 0.008 0.008 0.005
\( {e}_0^{\dagger } \) 0.107 0.086 0.025
Denmark
e 0 0.009 0.008 0.022
\( {e}_0^{\dagger } \) 0.057 0.045 0.024