Demography

, Volume 52, Issue 5, pp 1751–1772

Forced Displacement From Rental Housing: Prevalence and Neighborhood Consequences

Article

Abstract

Drawing on novel survey data of Milwaukee renters, this study documents the prevalence of involuntary displacement from housing and estimates its consequences for neighborhood selection. More than one in eight Milwaukee renters experienced an eviction or other kind of forced move in the previous two years. Multivariate analyses suggest that renters who experienced a forced move relocate to poorer and higher-crime neighborhoods than those who move under less-demanding circumstances. By providing evidence implying that involuntary displacement is a critical yet overlooked mechanism of neighborhood inequality, this study helps to clarify why some city dwellers live in much worse neighborhoods than their peers.

Keywords

Neighborhood selection Urban inequality Residential mobility Eviction Displacement 

References

  1. Abu-Lughod, J., & Foley, M. M. (1960). Consumer strategies. In N. Foote, J. Abu-Lughod, M. M. Foley, & L. Winnick (Eds.), Housing choices and housing constraints (pp. 71–271). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, A., & Muhlebach, R. (2009). How to negotiate with tenants in a tough economy. Journal of Property Management, 74, 42–45.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, P. (1990). Change scores as dependent variables in regression analysis. Sociological Methodology, 20, 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison, P. (2002). Missing data. New York, NY: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Been, V., & Glashausser, A. (2009). Tenants: Innocent victims of the foreclosure crisis. Albany Government Law Review, 2, 1–28.Google Scholar
  6. Bruch, E. (2014). How population structure shapes neighborhood segregation. American Journal of Sociology, 119, 1221–1278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carliner, M. (2013). Reducing energy costs in rental housing: The need and the potential. Cambridge, MA: Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University.Google Scholar
  8. Charles, C. Z. (2003). The dynamics of racial residential segregation. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 167–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark, W. A. V., & Onaka, J. L. (1983). Life cycle and housing adjustment as explanations of residential mobility. Urban Studies, 20, 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collinson, R. (2011). Rental housing affordability dynamics, 1990–2009. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 13, 71–103.Google Scholar
  11. Crowder, K., Pais, J., & South, S. (2012). Neighborhood diversity, metropolitan constraints, and household migration. American Sociological Review, 77, 325–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeLuca, S., Garboden, P., & Rosenblatt, P. (2013). Segregating shelter: How housing policies shape the residential locations of low-income minority families. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 647, 268–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Desmond, M. (2012). Eviction and the reproduction of urban poverty. American Journal of Sociology, 118, 88–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Desmond, M. (2015). Unaffordable America: Poverty, housing, and eviction. Fast Focus: Institute for Research on Poverty, 22, 1–6.Google Scholar
  15. Desmond, M. (In press). Evicted: Poverty and profit in the American city. New York, NY: Crown.Google Scholar
  16. Desmond, M., An, W., Winkler, R., & Ferriss, T. (2013). Evicting children. Social Forces, 92, 303–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Desmond, M., & Gershenson, C. (2015). Housing and employment insecurity among the working poor (Working paper). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  18. Desmond, M., Gershenson, C., & Kiviat, B. (2015). Forced relocation and residential instability among urban renters. Social Service Review, 89, 227–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Desmond, M., & Kimbro, R. T. (2015). Eviction’s fallout: Housing, hardship, and health. Social Forces. doi:10.1093/sf/sov044
  20. Duncan, G., & Newman, S. (2007). Expected and actual residential mobility. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 42, 174–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilderbloom, J., & Appelbaum, R. (1987). Toward a sociology of rent: Are rental housing markets competitive? Social Problems, 34, 261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greenlee, A. (2014). More than meets the market? Landlord agency in the Illinois housing choice voucher program. Housing Policy Debate, 24, 500–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hartman, C., & Robinson, D. (2003). Evictions: The hidden housing problem. Housing Policy Debate, 14, 461–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Horton, N., Lipsitz, S., & Parzen, M. (2003). A potential for bias when rounding in multiple imputation. American Statistician, 57, 229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hunter, M. (2013). Black citymakers: How the Philadelphia Negro changed urban America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ihrke, D., & Faber, C. (2012). Geographical mobility: 2005 to 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  27. June foreclosure rates increase in 2010. (2010, July 29). Milwaukee Business Journal. Retrieved from http://www.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2010/07/26/daily35.html
  28. Kendig, H. (1984). Housing careers, life cycle and residential mobility: Implications for the housing market. Urban Studies, 21, 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kleysteuber, R. (2006). Tenant screening thirty years later: A statutory proposal to protect public records. Yale Law Journal, 116, 1344–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krysan, M., & Bader, M. (2007). Perceiving the metropolis: Seeing the city through a prism of race. Social Forces, 86, 699–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lahiri, D. (1951). A method of sample selection providing unbiased ratio estimates. Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute, 33, 133–140.Google Scholar
  32. Lee, B., Oropesa, R. S., & Kanan, J. (1994). Neighborhood context and residential mobility. Demography, 31, 249–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Logan, J., & Alba, R. (1993). Locational returns to human capital: Minority access to suburban community resources. Demography, 30, 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Logan, J., Alba, R., Mcnulty, T., & Fisher, B. (1996). Making a place in the metropolis: Locational attainment in cities and suburbs. Demography, 33, 443–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Logan, J., & Molotch, H. (1987). Urban fortunes: The political economy of place. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  36. Manheim, K. (1989). Tenant eviction protection and the takings clause. Wisconsin Law Review, 1989, 925–1020.Google Scholar
  37. Massey, D., & Denton, N. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Massey, D., & Mullan, B. (1984). Processes of Hispanic and black spatial assimilation. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 836–873.Google Scholar
  39. Mayer, S., & Jencks, C. (1989). Poverty and the distribution of material hardship. Journal of Human Resources, 24, 88–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McDonald, K., & Richards, B. (2008). Downward residential mobility in structural-cultural context: The case of disadvantaged black mothers. Black Women, Gender, and Families, 2, 25–53.Google Scholar
  41. Newman, S., & Duncan, G. (1979). Residential problems, dissatisfaction, and mobility. Journal of the American Planning Association, 45, 154–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pager, D. (2007). Marked: Race, crime, and finding work in an era of mass incarceration. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pais, J., Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2012). Metropolitan heterogeneity and minority neighborhood attainment: Spatial assimilation or place stratification? Social Problems, 59, 258–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pattillo, M. (2005). Black middle-class neighborhoods. Annual Review of Sociology, 31, 305–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Quillian, L. (1999). Migration patterns and the growth of high-poverty neighborhoods, 1970–1990. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Riis, J. (1997). How the other half lives: Studies among the tenements of New York. New York, NY: Penguin Books. (Original worked published 1890)Google Scholar
  47. Ross, J. L. (1962). Reasons for moves to and from a central city area. Social Forces, 40, 261–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rossi, P. (1980). Why families move (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. (Original work published 1955)Google Scholar
  49. Rubin, D. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York, NY: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rugh, J. (2015). Double jeopardy: Why Latinos were hit hardest by the US foreclosure crisis. Social Forces, 93, 1139–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sampson, R. (2012). Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sampson, R., Morenoff, J., & Gannonn-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing “neighborhood effects”: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sampson, R., & Sharkey, P. (2008). Neighborhood selection and the social reproduction of concentrated racial inequality. Demography, 45, 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sampson, R., Sharkey, P., & Raudenbush, S. (2008). Durable effects of concentrated disadvantage on verbal ability among African-American children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 845–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schwartz, A. (2010). Housing policy in the United States (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Sharkey, P. (2010). The acute effect of local homicides on children’s cognitive performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 11733–11738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sharkey, P., & Faber, J. (2014). Where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter? Moving away from the dichotomous understanding of neighborhood effects. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 559–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Simons, J. (1968). Changing residence in the city: A review of intraurban mobility. Geographical Review, 58, 622–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Small, M. (2007). Is there such a thing as “the ghetto”? The perils of assuming that the south side of Chicago represents poor black neighborhoods. City, 11, 413–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. South, S., & Crowder, K. (1997). Escaping distressed neighborhoods: Individual, community, and metropolitan influences. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 1040–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. South, S., Crowder, K., & Chavez, E. (2005). Exiting and entering high-poverty neighborhoods: Latinos, blacks, and Anglos compared. Social Forces, 84, 873–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Speare, A., Jr. (1970). Home ownership, life cycle state, and residential mobility. Demography, 7, 449–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Steffen, B. (2011). Worst case housing needs 2009: Report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.Google Scholar
  64. St. Jean, P. (2007). Pockets of crime: Broken windows, collective efficacy, and the criminal point of view. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  65. Thacher, D. (2008). The rise of criminal background screening in rental housing. Law and Social Inquiry, 35, 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2009). 50th percentile rent estimates for 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  67. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2010). Live free: Annual report on fair housing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  68. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Committee on Degrees in Social StudiesHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociology and the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social PolicyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations