Do Daughters Really Cause Divorce? Stress, Pregnancy, and Family Composition

Abstract

Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers’ son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth—a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    For reviews, see Lundberg (2005) and Raley and Bianchi (2006).

  2. 2.

    Dahl and Moretti (2008: table 2) attempted to distinguish selection-driven versus counterfactual channels. They looked at births that happened at a time when there was still substantial variation in the use of ultrasound technology for prenatal care; they proposed that this variation can be treated as a natural experiment. It is important to note that the validity of that natural experiment rests on assumptions of no associations among the use of nonstandard prenatal medical intervention, parental circumstances, pregnancy survival, and the sex of the pregnancy. Those assumptions are nearly identical to assuming that the difference in curly braces in Eq. (2) is zero. Therefore, interpreting the ultrasound patterns as evidence of a specifically counterfactual effect of having daughters on risk of divorce represents the logical fallacy of begging the question. It is a test of the key assumption, which itself relies on the very assumption it is supposed to be testing.

  3. 3.

    More detailed discussion of the evidence is available in Online Resource 1, section B.1.

  4. 4.

    More detailed discussion of the evidence is available in Online Resource 1, section B.2.

  5. 5.

    Details on the study, including documentation of sampling and attrition, can be found online (http://www.bls.gov/nls/nlsy79.htm).

  6. 6.

    The analogy is not perfect. For example, the study design in Nepomnaschy et al. (2008) probably captured acute stress but not chronic hyperstimulation of the stress system. Nonetheless, the comparability in these relative risks arguably indicates that our putative association is plausible.

  7. 7.

    For example, these might include studies like those cited in Raley and Bianchi (2006), Snyder (1998), Steelman et al. (2002), or Conley et al. (2007).

References

  1. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650–666.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ananat, E. O., & Michaels, G. (2008). The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of women with children. Journal of Human Resources, 18, 612–629.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Arck, P. C., Rücke, M., Rose, M., Szekeres-Bartho, J., Douglas, A. J., Pritsch, M., & Klapp, B. F. (2008). Early risk factors for miscarriage: A prospective cohort study in pregnant women. Reproductive BioMedicine, 17, 101–113.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Beck, L. A., Pietromonaco, P. R., DeBuse, C. J., Powers, S. I., & Sayer, A. G. (2013). Spouses’ attachment pairings predict neuroendocrine, behavioral, and psychological responses to marital conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 388–424.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bedard, K., & Deschênes, O. (2005). Sex preferences, marital dissolution, and the economic status of women. Journal of Human Resources, 15, 411–434.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Belkin, L. (2010, September 7). Motherlode: Do daughters cause divorce? [Web log]. Retrieved from http://parenting.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/07/do-daughters-cause-divorce/

  7. Benagiano, G., Farris, M., & Grudzinskas, G. (2010). The fate of fertilized human oocytes. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 21, 732–741.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Boklage, C. E. (2005). The epigenetic environment: Secondary sex ratio depends on differential survival in embryogenesis. Human Reproduction, 20, 583–587.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bzostek, S. H., McLanahan, S., & Carlson, M. (2012). Mothers’ repartnering after a nonmarital birth. Social Forces, 90, 817–841.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Chahnazarian, A. (1988). Determinants of the sex ratio at birth: Review of recent literature. Social Biology, 35, 214–235.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Clark-Flory, T. (2010, September 7). More daughters, more divorce. Salon. Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/2010/09/07/daughters_divorce/

  12. Conley, D., Pfeiffer, K. M., & Velez, M. (2007). Explaining sibling differences in achievement and behavioral outcomes: The importance of within- and between-family factors. Social Science Research, 36, 1087–1104.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Cox, M. J., Paley, B., Burchinal, M., & Payne, C. C. (1999). Marital perceptions and interactions across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 611–625.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Crimmins, E. M., Kim, J. K., & Seeman, T. E. (2008). Poverty and biological risk: The earlier “aging” of the poor. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 64, 286–292.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Crouter, A. C., McHale, S. M., & Bartko, W. T. (1993). Gender as an organizing feature in parent-child relationships. Journal of Social Issues, 49, 161–174.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Dahl, E., Gupta, R. S., Beutel, M., Stoebel-Richter, Y., Brosig, B., Tinneberg, H.-R., & Jain, T. (2006). Preconception sex selection demand and preferences in the United States. Fertility and Sterility, 85, 468–473.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Dahl, G. B., & Moretti, E. (2008). The demand for sons. Review of Economic Studies, 75, 1085–1120.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Das Gupta, M. (2005). Explaining Asia’s missing women: A new look at the data. Population and Development Review, 31, 529–533.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Davis, D. L., Webster, P., Stainthorpe, H., Chilton, J., Jones, L., & Doi, R. (2007). Declines in sex ratio at birth and fetal deaths in Japan, and in U.S. whites but not African Americans. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115, 941–946.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Diekmann, A., & Schmidheiny, K. (2004). Do parents of girls have a higher risk of divorce? An eighteen-country study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 651–660.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Emery, R. E., Waldron, M., Kitzmann, K. M., & Aaron, J. (1999). Delinquent behavior, future divorce or nonmarital childbearing, and externalizing behavior among offspring: A 14-year prospective study. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 568–579.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Ferin, M. (1999). Stress and the reproductive cycle. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 1768–1774.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Fremont, A. M., & Bird, C. E. (2000). Social and psychological factors, physiological processes, and physical health. In C. E. Bird, P. Conrad, & A. M. Fremont (Eds.), Handbook of medical sociology (pp. 334–364). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Friedman, E. M., Karlamangla, A. S., Almeida, D. M., & Seeman, T. E. (2012). Social strain and cortisol regulation in midlife in the U.S. Social Science and Medicine, 74, 607–615.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Gourley, S. L., Swanson, A. M., & Koleske, A. J. (2013). Corticosteroid-induced neural remodeling predicts behavioral vulnerability and resilience. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 3107–3112.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Grudzinskas, J. G., & Nysenbaum, A. M. (1985). Failure of human pregnancy after implantation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 442, 38–44.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Gunlicks-Stoessel, M. L., & Powers, S. I. (2009). Romantic partners’ coping strategies and patterns of cortisol reactivity and recovery in response to relationship conflict. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 630–649.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Harris, K. M., & Morgan, S. P. (1991). Fathers, sons, and daughters: Differential paternal involvement in parenting. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 531–544.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hennessy, M. B., Kaiser, S., & Sachser, N. (2009). Social buffering of the stress response: Diversity, mechanisms, and functions. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 30, 470–482.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Het, S., Schoofs, D., Rohleder, N., & Wolf, O. T. (2012). Stress-induced cortisol level elevations are associated with reduced negative affect after stress: Indications for a mood-buffering cortisol effect. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74, 23–32. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31823a4a25

    Google Scholar 

  31. Hiedemann, B., Joesch, J. M., & Rose, E. (2004). More daughters in child care? Child gender and the use of nonrelative child care arrangements. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 154–168.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Hofferth, S., & Anderson, K. G. (2003). Are all dads equal? Biology versus marriage as a basis for paternal investment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 213–232.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Hutchison, C. (2010, October 6). Couples with daughters more likely to divorce. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Wellness/daughters-breed-divorce-boys-blessing-daughters-curse/story?id=11804444

  34. Katzev, A. R., Warner, R. L., & Acock, A. C. (1994). Girls or boys? Relationship of child gender to marital instability. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 89–100.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P., & Pelliniemi, L. J. (1984). Sex ratio of human conceptuses. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 64, 220–222.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Kelly, A. E. (2010, August 29). Psychology today insight: Why parents of girls divorce more: Is it really better to have a boy? Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/insight/201008/why-parents-girls-divorce-more

  37. Kennedy, S., & Bumpass, L. L. (2007). Cohabitation and children’s living arrangements: New estimates from the United States. Demographic Research, 19, 1663–1692.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Landsburg, S. E. (2003a, October 2). Oh no: It’s a girl! Do daughters cause divorce? Slate. http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/everyday_economics/2003/10/oh_no_its_a_girl.html

  39. Landsburg, S. E. (2003b, October 14). Maybe parents don’t like boys better: A follow-up to the recent column about whether daughters cause divorce. Slate. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/everyday_economics/2003/10/maybe_parents_dont_like_boys_better.html

  40. Lauderdale, D. S. (2006). Birth outcomes for Arabic-named women in California before and after September 11. Demography, 43, 185–201.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Laurent, H. K., Powers, S. I., & Granger, D. A. (2013). Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: Coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict. Physiology and Behavior, 119, 52–60.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Lawn, J. E., Blencowe, H., Darmstadt, G. L., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2013). Beyond newborn survival: The world you are born into determines your risk of disability-free survival. Pediatric Research, 74(S1), 1–3.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Lhila, A., & Simon, K. I. (2008). Prenatal health investment decisions: Does the child’s sex matter? Demography, 45, 885–905.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Lundberg, S. (2005). Sons, daughters, and parental behaviour. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 21, 340–356.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Lundberg, S., McLanahan, S., & Rose, E. (2007). Child gender and father involvement in Fragile Families. Demography, 44, 79–92.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Lundberg, S., & Rose, E. (2003). Child gender and the transition to marriage. Demography, 40, 333–349.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behavior and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 434–445.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Lytton, H., & Romney, D. M. (1991). Parents’ differential socialization of boys and girls: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 267–296.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Macklon, S., Geraedts, J. P. M., & Fauser, B. C. J. M. (2002). Conception to ongoing pregnancy: The “black box” of early pregnancy loss. Human Reproduction Update, 8, 333–343.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Maconochie, N., Doyle, P., Prior, S., & Simmons, R. (2006). Risk factors for first trimester miscarriage: Results from a UK population-based case-control study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 114, 170–186.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Mammen, K. (2008). The effect of children’s gender on living arrangements and child support. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 98, 408–412.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Mansour, H., & Rees, D. I. (2012). Armed conflict and birthweight: Evidence from the al-Aqsa Intifada. Journal of Development Economics, 99(1), 190–199.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Manton, K. G., Woodbury, M. A., & Stallard, E. (1995). Sex differences in human mortality and aging at late ages: The effect of mortality selection and state dynamics. The Gerontologist, 35, 597–608.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Marcus, M., Kiely, J., Xu, F., McGeehin, M., Jackson, R., & Sinks, T. (1998). Changing sex ratio in the United States 1969-1995. Fertility and Sterility, 70, 270–273.

    Google Scholar 

  55. McEwen, B. S. (2003). Mood disorders and allostatic load. Biological Psychology, 54, 200–207.

    Google Scholar 

  56. McEwen, B. S., & Wingfield, J. C. (2003). The concept of allostasis in biology and medicine. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 2–15.

    Google Scholar 

  57. McMillen, M. M. (1979). Differential mortality by sex in fetal and neonatal deaths. Science, 204, 89–91.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Meuwly, N., Bodenmann, G., Germann, J., Bradbury, T. N., Ditzen, B., & Heinrichs, M. (2012). Dyadic coping, insecure attachment, and cortisol stress recovery following experimentally induced stress. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 937–947.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 25–45.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Morgan, S. P., Lye, D. N., & Condran, G. A. (1988). Sons, daughters, and the risk of marital disruption. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 110–129.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Morgan, S. P., & Pollard, M. S. (2002). Do parents of girls really have a higher risk of divorce? Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, Duke University, Durham, NC. Retrieved from http://www.ccpr.ucla.edu/events/ccpr-seminars-previous-years/SemW04PollardMorgan.pdf

  62. Mott, F. L. (1994). Sons, daughters and fathers’ absence: Differentials in father-leaving probabilities and in home environments. Journal of Family Issues, 15, 97–128.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Nakamura, K., Sheps, S., & Arck, P. C. (2008). Stress and reproductive failure: Past notions, present insights and future directions. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 25, 47–62.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Nepomnaschy, P. A., Welch, K. B., McConnell, D. S., Low, B. S., Strassmann, B. I., & England, B. G. (2008). Cortisol levels and very early pregnancy loss in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 3938–3942.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Nepomnaschy, P. A., Welch, K., McConnell, D., Strassmann, B. I., & England, B. G. (2004). Stress and female reproductive function: A study of daily variations in cortisol, gonadotrophins, and gonadal steroids in a rural Mayan population. American Journal of Human Biology, 16, 523–532.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Parker, V. J., & Douglas, A. J. (2010). Stress in early pregnancy: Maternal neuro-endocrine-immune responses and effects. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 85, 86–92.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Pebley, A. R., & Westoff, C. F. (1982). Women’s sex preferences in the United States: 1970 to 1975. Demography, 19, 177–189.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Pergament, E., Todydemir, P. B., & Fiddler, M. (2002). Sex ratio: A biological perspective on “Sex and the City.” Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 5, 43–46.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Powers, S. I., Pietromonaco, P. R., Gunlicks, M., & Sayer, A. (2006). Dating couples’ attachment styles and patterns of cortisol reactivity and recovery in response to a relationship conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 613–628.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Raley, S., & Bianchi, S. (2006). Sons, daughters, and family processes: Does gender of children matter? Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 401–421.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Rawdin, B., Mellon, S., Dhabhar, F., Epel, E., Puterman, E., Sue, Y., & Wolkowitz, O. (2013). Dysregulated relationship of inflammation and oxidative stress in major depression. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 31, 143–152.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Roberts, C. J., & Lowe, C. R. (1975). Where have all the conceptions gone? The Lancet, 305, 2184–2189.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Ruttle, P. L., Shirtcliff, E. A., Serbin, L. A., Fisher, D. B.-D., Stack, D. M., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2011). Disentangling psychobiological mechanisms underlying internalizing and externalizing behaviors in youth: Longitudinal and concurrent associations with cortisol. Hormones and Behavior, 59, 123–132.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Sassler, S., Cunningham, A., & Lichter, D. T. (2009). Intergenerational patterns of union formation and relationship quality. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 757–786.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Seeman, T., Epel, E., Gruenewald, T., Karlamangla, A., & McEwen, B. S. (2010). Socioeconomic differentials in peripheral biology: Cumulative allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 223–239.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Sen, A. (1992). Missing women: Social inequality outweighs women’s survival advantage in Asia and North Africa. British Medical Journal, 304, 587–588.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Sen, A. (2003). Missing women–revisited. British Medical Journal, 327, 1297–1298.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Shumow, L., Vandell, D. L., & Posner, J. K. (1998). Harsh, firm, and permissive parenting in low-income families. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 483–507.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Snyder, J. R. (1998). Marital conflict and child adjustment: What about gender? Developmental Review, 18, 398–420.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Spanier, G. B., & Glick, P. C. (1981). Marital instability in the United States: Some correlates and recent changes. Family Relations, 30, 329–338.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Steelman, L. C., Powell, B., Werum, R., & Carter, S. (2002). Reconsidering the effects of sibling configuration: Recent advances and challenges. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 243–269.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Steinsaltz, D. (2013, January). What do we think we know about prenatal sex ratio, and when did we think we knew it? Paper presented at Spring 2013 Brown Bag Seminar. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Population Center.

  84. Sugiura-Ogasawara, M., Furukawa, T. A., Nakano, Y., Hori, S., Aoki, K., & Kitamura, T. (2002). Depression as a potential causal factor in subsequent miscarriage in recurrent spontaneous aborters. Human Reproduction, 17, 2580–2584.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Teachman, J. D., & Schollaert, P. T. (1989). Gender of children and birth timing. Demography, 26, 189–199.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Torche, F. (2011). The effect of maternal stress on birth outcomes: Exploiting a natural experiment. Demography, 48, 1473–1491.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Tucker, C. J., McHale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (2003). Dimensions of mothers’ and fathers’ differential treatment of siblings: Links with adolescents’ sex-typed personal qualities. Family Relations, 52, 82–89.

    Google Scholar 

  88. van Eck, M. M. M., Nicholson, N. A., Berkhof, H., & Sulon, J. (1996). Individual differences in cortisol responses to a laboratory speech task and their relationship to responses to stressful daily events. Biological Psychology, 43, 69–84.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Vatten, L. J., & Skjaerven, R. (2004). Offspring sex and pregnancy outcome by length of gestation. Early Human Development, 76, 47–54.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Vaupel, J., & Yashin, A. (1985). Heterogeneity’s ruses: Some surprising effects of selection on population dynamics. The American Statistician, 39, 176–185.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Vitzthum, V. J., Spielvogel, H., Thornburg, J., & West, B. (2006). A prospective study of early pregnancy loss in humans. Fertility and Sterility, 86, 373–379.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Wade, T. J., & Pevalin, D. J. (2004). Marital transitions and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 155–170.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Waffarn, F., & Davis, E. P. (2012). Effects of antenatal corticosteroids on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of the fetus and newborn: Experimental findings and clinical considerations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 207, 446–454.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Wang, X., Chen, C., Wang, L., Chen, D., Guang, W., & French, J. (2003). Conception, early pregnancy loss, and time to clinical pregnancy: A population based prospective study. Fertility and Sterility, 79, 577–584.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Wilcox, A. J., & Baird, D. D. (2011). Natural versus unnatural sex ratios—A quandary of modern times. American Journal of Epidemiology, 174, 1332–1334.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Wilcox, A. J., Weinberg, C. R., O’Connor, J. F., Baird, D. D., Schlatterer, J. P., Canfield, R. E., & Nisula, B. C. (1988). Incidence of early loss of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 189–194.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The ideas in this article have benefited from comments of Elizabeth Ananat, Tim Bruckner, Ray Catalano, Jennifer Beam Dowd, Elizabeth Frankenberg, V. Joseph Hotz, Christopher McKelvey, Alberto Palloni, Elizabeth Peters, and Duncan Thomas, as well as Pamela Smock, three anonymous reviewers, and our co-participants and attendees at session 161 (“Unions, Fertility, & Children”) at the 2013 annual meeting of the Population Association of America. Research described in this study was financially supported in part by the Center for Demography of Health and Aging at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. The authors are solely responsible for all content.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amar Hamoudi.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

ESM 1

(PDF 263 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hamoudi, A., Nobles, J. Do Daughters Really Cause Divorce? Stress, Pregnancy, and Family Composition. Demography 51, 1423–1449 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-014-0305-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mortality selection
  • Sex ratios
  • Fertility and fecundity
  • Divorce
  • Gender