, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 835–856 | Cite as

Patterns of Racial and Educational Assortative Mating in Brazil

  • Aaron GullicksonEmail author
  • Florencia TorcheEmail author


Exchange of racial for educational status has been documented for black/white marriages in the United States. Exchange may be an idiosyncratic feature of U.S. society, resulting from unusually strong racial boundaries historically developed there. We examine status exchange across racial lines in Brazil. In contrast to the United States, Brazil features greater fluidity of racial boundaries and a middle tier of “brown” individuals. If exchange is contingent on strong racial boundaries, it should be weak or non-existent in Brazilian society. Contrary to this expectation, we find strong evidence of status exchange. However, this pattern results from a generalized penalty for darkness, which induces a negative association between higher education and marrying darker spouses (“market exchange”) rather than from a direct trading of resources by partners (“dyadic exchange”). The substantive and methodological distinction between market and dyadic exchange helps clarify and integrate prior findings in the status exchange literature.


Interracial marriage Status exchange Marital sorting Brazil Race inequality 



This article uses data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International (IPUMS-I). We thank the Minnesota Population Center and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for making the data available. We are grateful to Matthijs Kalmijn for generously providing us with the code to replicate his model of status exchange. We thank Demography anonymous reviewers, Patricia Gwartney, Jill Harrison, Ryan Light, Matthew Norton, Eileen Otis, Jiannbin Shiao, Jessica Vasquez, and especially Paula England for helpful comments and suggestions.

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Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sociology DepartmentUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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