Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 1101–1130 | Cite as

More Than One Million New American Indians in 2000: Who Are They?

  • Carolyn A. LieblerEmail author
  • Timothy Ortyl
Article

Abstract

More than one million people reported their race as American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) in the 2000 U.S. census but did not do so in the 1990 census. We ask three questions. First, which subgroups had the greatest numerical growth? Second, which subgroups had the greatest proportional increase? And third, are the 2000 single-race AIANs and the 1990 AIANs the same set of people? We use full-count and high-density decennial census data; adjust for birth, death, and immigration; decompose on age, gender, Latino origin, education, and birth state; and compare the observed subgroup sizes in 2000 with the sizes expected based on 1990 counts. The largest numerical increases were among adolescent and middle-aged non-Latinos, non-Latino women, and adults with no college degree. Latinos, women, highly educated adults, and people born in Eastern states had the largest proportionate gains. The ability to report multiple races in 2000 and the new federal definition of “American Indian” may have especially affected these groups, although personal-identity changes are probably also involved. We find that thousands of new Latino AIANs reported only one race in 2000, but many 1990 AIANs reported multiple races in 2000. Thus, the 1990 AIANs and 2000 single-race AIANs are not always the same individuals.

Keywords

Race American Indian U.S. census Research Data Center Racial identification 

Notes

Acknowledgments and Disclaimer

This is a posthumous publication for Dr. Ortyl who died suddenly in 2013. His contributions to this article and sociology’s broader intellectual community were substantial. The research was conducted in the Minnesota Research Data Center, which receives funding from the National Science Foundation (SES-0851417 and ITR-0427889). Funding was provided by a Grant-in-Aid-of-Research from the College of Liberal Arts, University of Minnesota. We also gratefully acknowledge support from the Minnesota Population Center, which is funded by a center grant from the National Institutes of Health (R24-HD041023). This research was presented at the 2011 annual meetings of the Population Association of America and the Research Data Center Annual Research Conference, and was published by the U.S. Census Bureau as Center for Economic Studies Working Paper 13-02. For helpful comments, we thank J. Trent Alexander, Caren Arbeit, Julia Rivera Drew, Catherine Fitch, Liying Luo, Ann Meier, Sonya Rastogi, C. Matthew Snipp, John Robert Warren, and Meghan Zacher. Any opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the U. S. Census Bureau. All results have been reviewed to ensure that no confidential information is disclosed.

Supplementary material

13524_2014_288_MOESM1_ESM.docx (83 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 83 kb)

References

  1. Alba, R. (1990). Ethnic identity: The transformation of white America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alba, R., & Islam, T. (2009). The case of the disappearing Mexican Americans: An ethnic-identity mystery. Population Research and Policy Review, 28, 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba, R., & Nee, V. (2003). Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and the new immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, B., & Silver, B. (1983). Estimating Russification of ethnic identity among non-Russians in the USSR. Demography, 20, 461–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barth, F. (1969). Introduction. In F. Barth (Ed.), Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of cultural difference (pp. 9–38). Boston, MA: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  6. Bates, N., Martin, E., DeMaio, T., & de la Puente, M. (2006). Questionnaire effects on measurements of race and Spanish origin (Research Report Series, Survey Methodology #2006-12). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  7. Beale, C. (1958). Census problems of racial enumeration. In E. Thompson & E. Hughes (Eds.), Race: Individual and collective behavior (pp. 537–540). New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bentley, M., Mattingly, T., Hough, C., & Bennett, C. (2003). Census quality survey to evaluate responses to the Census 2000 question on race: An introduction to the data (Census 2000 Evaluation B.3). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  9. Berkowitz, S. (2001). Puerto Rico focus groups on the Census 2000 race and ethnicity questions (Census 2000 Evaluation B.13). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  10. Bureau of Indian Affairs. (2001). 2001 Indian population and labor force report. Washington, DC: Department of the Interior. Retrieved from http://www.bia.gov/cs/groups/public/documents/text/idc-001190.pdf Google Scholar
  11. Census Office, Department of the Interior. (1894). Report on Indians taxed and Indians not taxed in the United States (except Alaska) at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  12. Compton, E., Bentley, M., Ennis, S., & Rastogi, S. (2012). 2010 census Race and Hispanic Origin Alternative Questionnaire Experiment final report (DSSD 2010 Census Program for Evaluations and Experiments Memorandum Series #B-05-R, 2010 Census Planning Memoranda Series #211). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  13. Compton, E., Bentley, M., Ennis, S., & Rastogi, S. (2013). Supplemental analysis to the 2010 census Race and Hispanic Origin Alternative Questionnaire Experiment report (DSSD 2010 Decennial Census Memorandum Series #O-B-14-R1). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  14. Cornell, S. (1988). The return of the native: American Indian political resurgence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Crowley, M. (2004, April). White, Caucasian, and some other race: Testing special populations and their interaction with the Hispanic origin and race questions on two mock-up versions of the decennial census short form. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  16. Decker, G. (2011, July 4). Hispanics identifying themselves as Indians. New York Times (New York ed.), p. A16.Google Scholar
  17. Dowling, J. (2014). Mexican Americans and the question of race. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  18. Duncan, B., & Trejo, S. (2011). Who remains Mexican? Selective ethnic attrition and the intergenerational progress of Mexican Americans. In D. Leal & S. Trejo (Eds.), Latinos and the economy (pp. 285–320). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Epstein, M., Moreno, R., & Bacchetti, P. (1997). The underreporting of deaths of American Indian children in California, 1979 through 1993. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1363–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eschbach, K. (1992). Shifting boundaries: Regional patterns of identification and reidentification as American Indians (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Sociology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  21. Eschbach, K. (1993). Changing identification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Demography, 30, 635–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eschbach, K. (1995). The enduring and vanishing American Indian: American Indian population growth and intermarriage in 1990. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 18, 89–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eschbach, K., Supple, K., & Snipp, C. M. (1998). Changes in racial identification and the educational attainment of American Indians, 1970–1990. Demography, 35, 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fitzgerald, K. (2007). Beyond white ethnicity: Developing a sociological understanding of Native American identity reclamation. New York, NY: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  25. Freeman, C., & Fox, M. A. (2005). Status and trends in the education of American Indians and Alaska Natives (NCES 2005-108). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  26. Gans, H. (1979). Symbolic ethnicity: The future of ethnic groups and cultures in America. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grieco, E., & Cassidy, R. (2001). Overview of race and Hispanic origin (Census 2000 Brief C2KBR/01-1). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Google Scholar
  28. Harris, D. (1994). The 1990 census count of American Indians: What do the numbers really mean? Social Science Quarterly, 75, 580–593.Google Scholar
  29. Harris, D., & Sim, J. J. (2002). Who is multiracial? Assessing the complexity of lived race. American Sociological Review, 67, 614–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hefter, S., & Gbur, P. (2002). Overview of the U.S. Census 2000 long form weighting. In Proceedings of the Joint Statistical Meetings Section on Survey Research Methods (pp. 1418–1423). Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. Retrieved from http://www.amstat.org/sections/srms/Proceedings/
  31. Hout, M., & Goldstein, J. (1994). How 4.5 million Irish immigrants became 40 million Irish Americans: Demographic and subjective aspects of the ethnic composition of white Americans. American Sociological Review, 59, 64–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Humes, K., Jones, N., & Ramirez, R. (2011). Overview of race and Hispanic origin: 2010 (2010 Census Brief C2010BR-02). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  33. Kanaiaupuni, S., & Liebler, C. (2005). Pondering poi dog: The importance of place to the racial identification of mixed‐race Native Hawaiians. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28, 687–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khanna, N., & Johnson, C. (2010). Passing as black: Racial identity work among biracial Americans. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 380–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lieberson, S., & Waters, M. (1986). Ethnic groups in flux: The changing ethnic responses of American whites. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487, 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lieberson, S., & Waters, M. (1993). The ethnic responses of whites: What causes their instability, simplification, and inconsistency? Social Forces, 72, 421–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liebler, C. (2001). Fringes of American Indian identity (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin–Madison.Google Scholar
  38. Liebler, C. (2004). American Indian ethnic identity: Tribal specification in the 1990 census. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 310–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liebler, C. (2010a). A group in flux: Multiracial American Indians and the social construction of race. In K. Korgen (Ed.), Multiracial Americans and social class (pp. 131–144). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Liebler, C. (2010b). Homelands and indigenous identities in a multiracial era. Social Science Research, 39, 596–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liebler, C., & Zacher, M. (2013). American Indians without tribes in the twenty-first century. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36, 1910–1934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Loveman, M., & Muniz, J. (2007). How Puerto Rico became white: Boundary dynamics and intercensus racial reclassification. American Sociological Review, 72, 915–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin, E. (2007). Questionnaire effects on reporting of race and Hispanic origin: Results of a replication of the 1990 mail short form in Census 2000 (Research Report Series, Survey Methodology #2007-24). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  44. Martin, E., & Gerber, E. (2005). Results of recent methodological research on the Hispanic origin and race questions (Research Report Series, Survey Methodology #2005-04). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  45. McKenney, N., & Bennett, C. (1994). Issues regarding data on race and ethnicity: The Census Bureau experience. Public Health Reports, 109, 16–25.Google Scholar
  46. Miller, M. (2004). Rise and fall of the cosmic race: The cult of mestizaje in Latin America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  47. Nagel, J. (1994). Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Social Problems, 41, 152–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nagel, J. (1995). American Indian ethnic renewal: Politics and the resurgence of identity. American Sociological Review, 60, 947–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nagel, J. (1996). American Indian ethnic renewal: Red Power and the resurgence of identity and culture. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (2003). Health, United States, 2003 with chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS.Google Scholar
  51. Naylor, C. (2008). African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From chattel to citizens. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  52. Office of Management and Budget. (1978). Directive No. 15, race and ethnic standards for federal statistics and administrative reporting. Federal Register, 48, 19269–19270.Google Scholar
  53. Office of Management and Budget. (1997). Revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. Federal Register, 62, 58781–58790.Google Scholar
  54. Omi, M., & Winant, H. (1994). Racial formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Passel, J. (1976). Provisional evaluation of the 1970 census count of American Indians. Demography, 13, 397–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Passel, J. (1997). The growing American Indian population, 1960–1990: Beyond demography. Population Research and Policy Review, 16, 11–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Passel, J., & Berman, P. (1986). Quality of 1980 census data for American Indians. Social Biology, 33, 163–182.Google Scholar
  58. Perez, A., & Hirschman, C. (2009). Estimating net interracial mobility in the United States: A residual methods approach. Sociological Methodology, 39, 31–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Quinn, W. W., Jr. (1990). The Southeast syndrome: Notes on Indian descendant recruitment organizations and their perceptions of Native American culture. American Indian Quarterly, 14, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rodríguez, C. (2000). Changing race: Latinos, the census, and the history of ethnicity in the United States. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Ruggles, S., Alexander, J. T., Genadek, K., Goeken, R., Schroeder, M., & Sobek, M. (2010). Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 5.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  62. Saperstein, A. (2012). Capturing complexity in the United States: Which aspects of race matter and when? Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35, 1484–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Saperstein, A., & Penner, A. M. (2010). The race of a criminal record: How incarceration colors racial perceptions. Social Problems, 57, 92–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Saperstein, A., & Penner, A. M. (2012). Racial fluidity and inequality in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 118, 676–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schindler, E., Griffin, R., & Swan, C. (1992). Weighting the 1990 census sample. Proceedings of the Government Statistics Section of the American Statistics Association (pp. 726–731). Retrieved from http://www.amstat.org/sections/srms/Proceedings/
  66. Snipp, C. M. (1989). American Indians: The first of this land. New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  67. Sturm, C. (2011). Becoming Indian: The struggle over Cherokee identity in the twenty-first century. Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research Press.Google Scholar
  68. Tax, S. (1978). The impact of urbanization on American Indians. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 436, 121–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thornton, R. (1987). American Indian holocaust and survival: A population history since 1492. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  70. Thornton, R. (1990). The Cherokees: A population history. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  71. Thornton, R. (1997). Tribal membership requirements and the demography of “old” and “new” Native Americans. Population Research and Policy Review, 16, 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. U.S. Census Bureau. (2004). Census 2000, accuracy and coverage evaluation of Census 2000: Design and methodology (DSSD/03-DM). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  73. U.S. Census Bureau. (2009). History: 2000 census of population and housing (Vol. 2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  74. Waters, M. (1990). Ethnic options: Choosing identities in America. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  75. Waters, M. (1999). Black identities: West Indian immigrant dreams and American realities. New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  76. Wimmer, A. (2008). The making and unmaking of ethnic boundaries: A multilevel process theory. American Journal of Sociology, 113, 970–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Minnesota Population CenterUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations