Aassve, A. (2003). The impact of economic resources on premarital childbearing and subsequent marriage among young American women. Demography, 40, 105–126.
Anderson, E. (1989). Sex codes and family life among poor inner-city youths. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 501, 59–78.
Axinn, W. G., & Thornton, A. (2000). The transformation in the meaning of marriage. In L. J. Waite (Ed.), The ties that bind (pp. 147–165). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Becker, G. S. (1960). An economic analysis of fertility. In National Bureau of Economic Research (Ed.), Demographic and economic change in developed countries (pp. 209–231). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Becker, G. S. (1991). A treatise on the family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Blau, P. M., & Duncan, O. D. (1967). The American occupational structure. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Center for Human Resource Research. (2006). NLSY users guide: A guide to the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Columbus: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University.
Center for Human Resource Research. (2008). NLSY users guide: A guide to the 1979–2006 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Data. Columbus: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University.
Cherlin, A. J., Cross-Barnet, C., Burton, L. M., & Garrett-Peters, R. (2008). Promises they can keep: Low-income women’s attitudes toward motherhood, marriage, and divorce. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70, 919–933.
Edin, K., & Kefalas, M. (2005). Promises I can keep: Why poor women put motherhood before marriage. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Edin, K., England, P., Shafer, E. F., & Reed, J. (2007). Forming fragile families: Was the baby planned, unplanned, or in between? In P. England & K. Edin (Eds.), Unmarried couples with children (pp. 25–54). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Elo, I. T., King, R. B., & Furstenberg, F. F., Jr. (1999). Adolescent females: Their sexual partners and the fathers of their children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 74–84.
Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., & Weiss, C. C. (2000). Intergenerational transmission of fathering roles in at risk families. Marriage and Family Review, 29(2/3), 181–201.
Garfinkel, I., McLanahan, S. S., & Hanson, T. L. (1998). A patchwork portrait of nonresident fathers. In I. Garfinkel, S. S. McLanahan, D. R. Meyer, & J. A. Seltzer (Eds.), Fathers under fire: The revolution in child support enforcement (pp. 31–60). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Geronimus, A. T., & Korenman, S. (1992). The socioeconomic consequences of teen childbearing reconsidered. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107, 1187–1214.
Gibson-Davis, C. (2009). Money, marriage, and children: Testing the financial expectations and family formations theory. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, 146–160.
Glick, J. E., Ruf, S. D., White, M. J., & Goldscheider, F. (2006). Educational engagement and early family formation: Differences by ethnicity and generation. Social Forces, 84, 1391–1415.
Goldscheider, F. K., & Kaufman, G. (1996). Fertility and commitment: Bringing men back in. Population and Development Review, 22, 87–99.
Greene, M. E., & Biddlecom, A. E. (2000). Absent and problematic men: Demographic accounts of male reproductive roles. Population and Development Review, 26, 81–115.
Hamilton, B. E., Martin, J. A., & Ventura, S. J. (2011). Births: Preliminary data for 2010 (National Vital Statistics Reports 60(2)). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Hanson, S. L., Morrison, D. R., & Ginsburg, A. L. (1989). The antecedents of teenage fatherhood. Demography, 26, 579–596.
Haveman, R., Wolfe, B., & Pence, K. (2001). Intergenerational effects of nonmarital and early childbearing. In L. L. Wu & B. Wolfe (Eds.), Out of wedlock: Causes and consequences of nonmarital fertility (pp. 390–402). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Hofferth, S. L., & Goldscheider, F. (2010). Family structure and the transition to early parenthood. Demography, 47, 415–437.
Huebner, B. M. (2007). Racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of marriage: The effect of incarceration. Justice Quarterly, 24, 156–183.
Hynes, K., Joyner, K., Peters, H. E., & DeLeone, F. (2008). The transition to early fatherhood: National estimates based on multiple surveys. Demographic Research, 18(article 12), 337–376. doi:10.4054/DemRes.2008.18.12
Jemmott, J. B., Jemmott, L. S., & Fong, G. T. (2010). Efficacy of a theory-based abstinence-only intervention over 24 months: A randomized controlled trial with young adolescents. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 152–159.
Joyner, K., Peters, H. E., Hynes, K., Sikora, A., Rubenstein, J., & Rendall, M. (2012). The quality of male fertility data in major U.S. surveys. Demography, 49, 101–124.
Ku, L., Sonenstein, F. L., & Pleck, J. H. (1993). Neighborhood, family, and work: Influences on the premarital behaviors of adolescent males. Social Forces, 72, 479–503.
Lam, D. (1988). Marriage markets and assortative mating with household public goods: Theoretical results and empirical implications. The Journal of Human Resources, 23, 462–487.
Lerman, R. I. (1993). A national profile of young unwed fathers. In R. I. Lerman & T. J. Ooms (Eds.), Young unwed fathers: Changing roles and emerging policies (pp. 27–51). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Lerman, R., & Sorenson, E. (2000). Father involvement with their nonmarital children: Patterns, determinants, and effects on their earnings. Marriage and Family Review, 29, 137–158.
Lindberg, L. D., Sonenstein, F. L., Martinez, G., & Marcotte, J. (1998). Completeness of young fathers’ reports of fertility. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 24, 15–23.
Lopoo, L. M., & Western, B. (2005). Incarceration and the formation and stability of marital unions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 721–734.
Lundquist, J. H., & Smith, H. L. (2005). Family formation among women in the U.S. military: Evidence from the NLSY. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1–13.
Marsiglio, W. (1987). Adolescent fathers in the United States: Their initial living arrangements, marital experience and educational outcomes. Family Planning Perspectives, 19, 240–251.
Martinez, G. M., Chandra, A., Abma, J. C., Jones, J., & Mosher, W. D. (2006). Fertility, contraception, and fatherhood: Data on men and women from Cycle 6 (2002) of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (Vital and Health Statistics 23(26)). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
McLanahan, S. (2011). Family instability and complexity after a nonmarital birth: Outcomes for children in fragile families. In M. J. Carlson & P. England (Eds.), Social class and changing families in an unequal America (pp. 108–133). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Michael, R. T., & Tuma, N. B. (1985). Entry into marriage and parenthood by young men and women: The influence of family background. Demography, 22, 515–544.
Mincer, J. (1974). Schooling, experience and earnings. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mincy, R. B., & Pouncy, H. (1999). There must be 50 ways to start a family. In W. Horn, D. Blankenhorn, & M. B. Pearlstein (Eds.), The fatherhood movement: A call to action (pp. 83–104). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Mincy, R. B., & Pouncy, H. (2007). Baby fathers and American family formation: Low-income, never-married parents in Louisiana before Katrina. New York: Center for Marriage and Families, Institute for American Values.
Mott, F. L., & Gryn, T. A. (2001, March). Evaluating male fertility data: Who reports consistently and what are the analytical implications? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, DC.
Moynihan, D. P. (1965). The Negro family: The case for national action. Washington, DC: United States Department of Labor, Office of Policy Planning and Research.
Muller, C. (1995). Maternal employment, parent involvement, and mathematics achievement among adolescents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 85–100.
Musick, K. (2002). Planned and unplanned childbearing among unmarried women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 915–929.
Musick, K., England, P., Edgington, S., & Kangas, N. (2010). Education differences in intended and unintended fertility. Social Forces, 88, 543–572.
National Center for Health Statistics. (2004). Public use data file documentation National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6: 2002. User’s guide. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Nelson, T. J. (2004). Low-income fathers. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 427–451.
Nock, S. L. (1998). The consequences of premarital fatherhood. American Sociological Review, 63, 259–263.
Pears, K. C., Pierce, S. L., Kim, H. K., Capaldi, D. M., & Owen, L. D. (2005). The timing of entry into fatherhood in young, at-risk men. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 429–447.
Rendall, M. S., Clarke, L., Peters, H. E., Ranjit, N., & Verropoulou, G. (1999). Incomplete reporting of men’s fertility in the United States and Britain: A research note. Demography, 36, 135–144.
Royston, P. (2004). Multiple imputation of missing values. The Stata Journal, 4, 227–241.
Rubin, D. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: John Wiley.
Ruhm, C. (2008). Maternal employment and adolescent development. Labour Economics, 15, 958–983.
Tach, L., Mincy, R., & Edin, K. (2010). Parenting as a package deal: Relationships, fertility, and nonresident father involvement among unmarried parents. Demography, 47, 181–204.
Teachman, J. (2007). Race, military service, and marital timing: Evidence from the NLSY-79. Demography, 44, 389–404.
Thornberry, T. P., Smith, C. A., & Howard, G. J. (1997). Risk factors for teenage fatherhood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 505–522.
Thornton, A., & Camburn, D. (1989). Religious participation and adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 641–653.
Upchurch, D. M., Lillard, L. A., & Panis, C. W. A. (2002). Nonmarital childbearing: Influences of education, marriage, and fertility. Demography, 39, 311–329.
Upchurch, D. M., & McCarthy, J. (1990). The timing of a first birth and high school completion. American Sociological Review, 55, 224–234.
Ventura, S. J., & Bachrach, C. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, 1949–99 (National Vital Statistics Reports 48(6)). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Western, B. (2002). The impact of incarceration on wage mobility and inequality. American Sociological Review, 67, 526–546.
Western, B., & Pettit, B. (2000). Incarceration and racial inequality in men’s employment. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 54, 3–16.
Wilcox, W. B., & Wolfinger, N. H. (2007). Then comes marriage? Religion, race, and marriage in urban America. Social Science Research, 36, 569–589.
Willis, R. J. (1999). A theory of out-of-wedlock childbearing. Journal of Political Economy, 107, S33–S64.
Willis, R. J. (2000). The economics of fatherhood. The American Economic Review, 90, 378–382.
Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Wu, L. L., & Martin, S. P. (2013). Sexual onset and premarital first births: Insights from a sequential hazard model. Unpublished manuscript, New York University.
Wu, L. L., & Wolfe, B. (Eds.). (2001). Out of wedlock: Causes and consequences of nonmarital fertility. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Xie, Y., Raymo, J., Goyette, K., & Thornton, A. (2003). Economic potential and entry into marriage and cohabitation. Demography, 40, 351–367.
Zavodny, M. (1999). Do men’s characteristics affect whether a nonmarital pregnancy results in marriage? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 764–773.