, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 359–391 | Cite as

Integration or Fragmentation? Racial Diversity and the American Future

  • Daniel T. LichterEmail author


Over the next generation or two, America’s older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today’s disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America’s racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today’s disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries—that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America’s older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America’s increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today’s children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children—now.


Immigration Segregation Intermarriage Poor children Intergenerational conflict 



This article is a revised version of the presidential address presented at the annual meetings of the Population Association of America, May 4, 2012, in San Francisco. The author acknowledges the computing assistance of Scott Sanders and Richard Turner as well as helpful comments from Fenaba Addo, Richard Alba, Linda Burton, William A.V. Clark, Gordon DeJong, Mark Fossett, Samantha Friedman, Matthew Hall, Kenneth Johnson, Kara Joyner, Maria Krysan, Marlene Lee, Dean Lillard, John Logan, Steve Morgan, Kelly Musick, Dowell Myers, Domenico “Mimmo” Parisi, Zhenchao Qian, Marty Farnsworth Richie, Scott Sanders, Sharon Sassler, Stewart Tolnay, Kim Turner, Kim Weeden, Alexander Weinreb, Michael White, and two anonymous reviewers. Of course, the author alone is responsible for the views expressed in this article.


  1. Alba, R. (1985). The twilight of ethnicity among Americans of European ancestry: The case of Italians. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 8, 134–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alba, R. (2005). Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28, 20–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba, R. (2009). Blurring the color line: The new chance for a more integrated America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Alba, R. D., & Nee, V. (2003). Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Alba, R., Slown, J., & Sperline, J. (2011). The integration imperative: The children of low-status immigrants in schools of wealthy societies. Annual Review of Sociology, 37, 395–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alba, R., & Waters, M. C. (2012). The next generation: Immigration youth in a comparative perspective. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Alexander, M., & West, C. (2012). The new Jim Crow. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  8. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  9. Alon, S., & Tienda, M. (2007). Diversity, opportunity, and the shifting meritocracy in higher education. American Sociological Review, 72, 487–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Batson, C. D., Qian, Z., & Lichter, D. T. (2006). Interracial and intraracial patterns of mate selection among America’s diverse black populations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 658–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blackwell, D. L., & Lichter, D. T. (2004). Homogamy among dating, cohabitating, and married couples. The Sociological Quarterly, 45, 719–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blau, P. (1977). Inequality and heterogeneity: A primitive theory of social structure. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Blau, P. M., Beeker, C., & Fitzpatrick, K. M. (1984). Intersecting social affiliations and intermarriage. Social Forces, 62, 585–606.Google Scholar
  14. Bobo, L. D. (2011). Somewhere between Jim Crow & post-racialism: Reflections on the racial divide. Daedalus, 140, 111–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bobo, L., & Charles, C. (2009). Race in the American mind: from the Moynihan report to the Obama candidacy. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 621, 243–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2002). We are all Americans! The Latin Americanization of racial stratification in the USA. Race and Society, 5, 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bruch, E. E., & Mare, R. D. (2006). Neighborhood choice and neighborhood change. The American Journal of Sociology, 112, 667–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buchanan, P. J. (2011). Suicide of a superpower: Will America survive to 2025? New York: Thomas Dunne Books.Google Scholar
  19. Burk, J., & Espinoza, E. (2012). Race relations within the U.S. military. Annual Review of Sociology, 38, 401–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burton, L. M., Bonilla-Silva, E., Ray, V., Buckelew, R., & Freeman, E. H. (2010). Critical race theories, colorism, and the decade’s research on families of color. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 440–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Charles, C. Z. (2003). The dynamics of racial residential segregation. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 167–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. The Chronicle of Higher Education. (2011, September 30). Diversity in academe. Retrieved from
  23. Choi, K. H., Tienda, M., Cobb-Clark, D., & Sinning, M. (2011). Immigration and status exchange in Australia and the United States. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 30, 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clark, W. A. V. (2007). Race, class, and place: Evaluating mobility outcomes for African Americans. Urban Affairs Review, 42, 295–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clark, W. A. V. (2009). Changing residential preferences across income, education, and age: Findings from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality. Urban Affairs Review, 44, 334–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clark, W. A. V., & Fossett, M. (2008). Understanding the social context of the Schelling segregation model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 105, 4109–4114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coleman, D. (2006). Immigration and ethnic change in low-fertility countries: A third demographic transition. Population and Development Review, 32, 401–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coleman, D. (2009). Divergent patterns in the ethnic transformation of societies. Population and Development Review, 35, 449–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coleman, D. (2010). Projections of the ethnic minority populations of the United Kingdom 2006–2056. Population and Development Review, 36, 441–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooke, T. J. (2010). Residential mobility of the poor and the growth of poverty in inner-ring suburbs. Urban Geography, 31, 179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crowder, K., Hall, M., & Tolnay, S. E. (2011). Neighborhood immigration and native out-migration. American Sociological Review, 76, 25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. C. (2011). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2010 (Current Population Reports No. P60-239). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  33. Dion, M. R. (2005). Healthy marriage programs: Learning what works. The Future of Children, 15, 139–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dixon, J. C. (2006). The ties that bind and those that don’t: Toward reconciling group threat and contact theories of prejudice. Social Forces, 84, 2179–2204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Domingo, A. (2008). “Demodystopias”: Prospects of demographic hell. Population and Development Review, 34, 725–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Donato, K. M., & Armenta, A. (2011). What we know about unauthorized migration? Annual Review of Sociology, 37, 529–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dreier, P., Mollenkopf, J., & Swanstrom, T. (2001). Place matters: Metropolitics for the 21st century. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  38. Duncan, B., & Trejo, S. J. (2007). Ethnic identification, intermarriage, and unmeasured progress by Mexican Americans. In G. J. Borjas (Ed.), Mexican immigration to the United States (pp. 229–267). Chicago, IL: National Bureau of Economic Research and the University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Duncan, B., & Trejo, S. J. (2011). Intermarriage and the intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and human capital for Mexican Americans. Journal of Labor Economics, 29, 195–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dunifon, R. (2010). Welfare reform and intergenerational mobility (a report for the Economic Mobility Project). Washington, DC: Pew Charitable Trusts. Retrieved from
  41. Dwyer, R. E. (2010). Poverty, prosperity, and place: The shape of class segregation in the age of extremes. Social Problems, 57, 114–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dye, J. L. (2010). Fertility of American women: 2008 (Current Population Reports No. P-20 563). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  43. Espenshade, T. J., & Radford, A. W. (2009). No longer separate, not yet equal: Race and class in elite college admission and campus life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Farley, R. (1988). After the starting line: Blacks and women in an uphill race. Demography, 25, 477–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Farrell, C. R., & Lee, B. A. (2011). Racial diversity and change in metropolitan neighborhoods. Social Science Research, 40, 1108–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Feliciano, C., Robnett, B., & Komaie, G. (2009). Gendered racial exclusion among white internet daters. Social Science Research, 38, 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Figlio, D. N., & Fletcher, D. (2012). Suburbanization, demographic change and the consequences for school finance. Journal of Public Economics, 96, 1144–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fischer, C. S., & Mattson, G. (2009). Is America fragmenting? Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 435–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fischer, C. S., Stockmayer, G., Stiles, J., & Hout, M. (2004). Distinguishing the geographic levels and social dimensions of U.S. metropolitan segregation. Demography, 41, 37–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Flippen, C. A. (2012). Laboring underground: The employment patterns of Hispanic immigrant men in Durham, NC. Social Problems, 59, 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fong, E., & Shibuya, K. (2005). Multiethnic cities in North America. Annual Review of Sociology, 31, 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fossett, M. (2006). Ethnic preferences, social distance dynamics, and residential segregation: Theoretical explorations using simulation analysis. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 30, 185–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Frank, R., Akresh, I. R., & Lu, B. (2010). Latino immigrants and the U.S. racial order: How and where do they fit in? American Sociological Review, 75, 378–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Frey, W. H. (2011). America’s diverse future: Initial glimpses at the U.S. child population from the 2010 Census (State of Metropolitan America No. 26). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  55. Friedman, S. (2008). Do declines in residential segregation mean stable neighborhood racial integration in metropolitan America? A research note. Social Science Research, 37, 920–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Friedman, S. (2012). Bringing proximate neighbours into the study of U.S. residential segregation. Urban Studies, 48, 611–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Geller, A., Cooper, C. E., Garfinkel, I., Schwartz-Soicher, O., & Mincy, R. B. (2012). Beyond absenteeism: Father incarceration and child development. Demography, 49, 49–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gilens, M. (2000). Why Americans hate welfare: Race, media, and the politics of antipoverty policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Glaeser, E., & Vigdor, J. (2012). The end of the segregated century: Racial separation in America’s neighborhoods, 1990–2010 (Civic Report No. 66). New York: Manhattan Institute.Google Scholar
  60. Goldstein, J. (1999). Kinship networks that cross racial lines: The exception or the rule? Demography, 36, 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Goodreau, S. M., Kitts, J. A., & Morris, M. (2009). Birds of a feather or friend of a friend? Using exponential random graph models to investigate adolescent social networks. Demography, 46, 103–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American life. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Gullickson, A. (2006). Black/white interracial marriage trends, 1850–2000. Journal of Family History, 31, 289–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hacker, J. S., & Pierson, P. (2010). Winner-take-all politics: How Washington made the rich richer—and turned its back on the middle class. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  65. Hall, M. (2013). Residential integration on the new frontier: Immigrant segregation in established and new destinations. Demography. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s13524-012-0177-x
  66. Hall, M., Greenman, E., & Farkas, G. (2010). Legal status and wage disparities for Mexican immigrants. Social Forces, 89, 491–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harris, D. R. (2001). Why are whites and blacks averse to black neighbors? Social Science Research, 30, 100–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Harris, D. R., & Ono, H. (2005). How many interracial marriages would there be if all groups were of equal size in all places. Social Science Research, 34, 236–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Heaton, T. B., & Mitchell, C. (2012). Changing intergroup boundaries in Brazilian marriages: 1991–2008. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 43, 461–482.Google Scholar
  70. Heckman, J. (2006). Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children. Science, 312, 1900–1902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Herman, M. R., & Campbell, M. E. (2012). I wouldn’t, but you can: Attitudes toward interracial relationships. Social Science Research, 41, 343–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hero, R. E. (2007). Racial diversity and social capital: Equality and community in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hipp, J. R. (2012). Segregation through the lens of housing unit transition: What roles do the prior residents, the local micro-neighborhood, and the broader neighborhood play? Demography, 49, 1285–1306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hirschman, C. (2005). Immigration and the American century. Demography, 42, 595–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hirschman, C., Alba, R., & Farley, R. (2000). The meaning and measurement of race in the U.S. census: Glimpses into the future. Demography, 37, 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hixson, L., Hepler, B., & Kim, M. O. (2011). The white population: 2010 (2010 Census Briefs C2010BR-05). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  77. Hochschild, J. L., Weaver, V. M., & Burch, T. (2012). Creating a new racial order: How immigration, multiracialism, genomics, and the young can remake race in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Hoffman, S. (2006). By the numbers: The public costs of teen childbearing. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.Google Scholar
  79. Hollinger, D. A. (2008). Obama, the instability of color lines, and the promise of a postethnic future. Callaloo, 31, 1033–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hout, M., & Goldstein, J. (1994). How 4.5 million Irish immigrants become 40 million Irish Americans: Demographic and subjective aspects of the ethnic composition of white Americans. American Sociological Review, 59, 64–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Huffington, A. (2011). Third World America. New York: Broadway Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  82. Humes, K. R., Jones, N. A., & Ramirez, R. R. (2011). Overview of race and Hispanic origin: 2010 (2010 Census Briefs C2010BR-02). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  83. Hummer, R. A., & Hamilton, E. R. (2010). Race and ethnicity in fragile families. The Future of Children, 20, 113–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Huntington, S. P. (2004). Who are we? The challenges to America’s national identity. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  85. Iceland, J. (2009). Where we live: Immigration and race in the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  86. Iceland, J., Goyette, K. A., Nelson, K. A., & Chan, C. W. (2010). Racial and ethnic residential segregation and household structure: A research note. Social Science Research, 39, 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Iceland, J., Sharp, G., & Timberlake, J. M. (2013). Sun belt rising: Regional population change and the decline in black residential segregation, 1970–2009. Demography, 50, 97–123.Google Scholar
  88. Isaacs, J., Hahn, H., Renane, S., Steurele, E. E., & Vericher, T. (2011). Kid’s share: Report on federal expenditures on children through 2010. Washington, DC: Urban Institute and Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  89. Jacobs, L. R., & Soss, J. (2010). The politics of inequality in America: A political economy framework. Annual Review of Political Science, 13, 341–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jimenéz, T. R. (2010). Replenishing ethnicity: Mexican Americans, immigration and identity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  91. Johnson, K. M., & Lichter, D. T. (2008). Natural increase: A new source of population growth in emerging Hispanic destinations. Population and Development Review, 34, 327–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Johnson, K. M., & Lichter, D. T. (2010). Growing diversity among America’s children and youth: Spatial and temporal dimensions. Population and Development Review, 36, 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Johnson, K. M., & Lichter, D. T. (2012). Rural natural increase in the new century: America’s third demographic transition. In L. J. Kulcsar & K. J. Curtis (Eds.), International Handbook of Rural Demography (pp. 17–34). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Joyner, K., & Kao, G. (2000). School racial composition and adolescent racial homophily. Social Science Quarterly, 81, 810–825.Google Scholar
  95. Joyner, K., & Kao, G. (2005). Interracial relationships and the transition to adulthood. American Sociological Review, 70, 563–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Junius, D. (2012, October 27). AP poll: U.S. majority have prejudice against blacks. USA Today. Retrieved online from
  97. Kalmijn, M., & van Tubergen, F. (2010). A comparative analysis of intermarriage: Explaining differences among national-origin groups in the United States. Demography, 47, 459–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kao, G., & Joyner, K. (2006). Do Hispanic and Asian adolescents practice panethnicity friendship choices? Social Science Quarterly, 87, 972–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kearney, M. (2006). Intergenerational mobility for women and minorities in the United States. The Future of Children, 16, 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kesler, C., & Bloemraad, I. (2010). Does immigration erode social capital? The conditional effects of immigration-generated diversity on trust, membership, and participation across 19 countries, 1981–2000. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 43, 319–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kim, A. H., & White, M. J. (2010). Panethnicity, ethnic diversity, and residential segregation. The American Journal of Sociology, 115, 1558–1596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kohler, P. K., Manhart, L. E., & Lafferty, W. E. (2008). Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 344–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kritz, M. M., Gurak, D. G., & Lee, M.-A. (2011). Will they stay? Foreign-born out-migration from new U.S. destinations. Population Research and Policy Review, 30, 537–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Krysan, M. (2002). Community undesirability in black and white: Examining racial residential preferences through community perceptions. Social Problems, 49, 521–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Krysan, M., Couper, M. P., Farley, R., & Forman, T. A. (2009). Does race matter in neighborhood preferences? Results from a video experiment. The American Journal of Sociology, 115, 527–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lam, D. (2011). How the world survived the population bomb: Lessons from 50 years of extraordinary demographic history. Demography, 48, 1231–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lamont, M., & Molnár, V. (2002). The study of boundaries in the social sciences. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 167–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Landale, N. S., & Oropesa, R. S. (2007). Hispanic families: Stability and change. Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 381–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Laumann, E. O. (1973). Bonds of pluralism: The form and substance of urban social networks. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  110. Lee, B. A., Iceland, J., & Sharp, G. (2012). Racial and ethnic diversity goes local: Charting change in American communities over three decades (US2010 Project Report). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  111. Lee, B. A., & Marlay, M. (2007). The right side of the tracks: Affluent neighborhoods in the metropolitan United States. Social Science Quarterly, 88, 766–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lee, B. A., Reardon, S. F., Firebaugh, G., Farrell, C. R., Matthews, S. A., & O’Sullivan, D. (2008). Beyond the census tract: Patterns and determinants of racial segregation at multiple geographic scales. American Sociological Review, 73, 766–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lee, J., & Bean, F. D. (2004). America’s changing color lines: Race/ethnicity, immigration, and multiracial identification. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 221–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lee, J., & Bean, F. D. (2010). The diversity paradox: Immigration and the color line in 21st century America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  115. Lichter, D. T. (2012a). Immigration and the new racial diversity in rural America. Rural Sociology, 77, 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lichter, D. T. (2012b). Childbearing among cohabiting women: Race, pregnancy, and union transitions. In A. Booth, S. L. Brown, & N. S. Landale (Eds.), Early adulthood in a family context (pp. 209–219). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lichter, D. T., Brown, J. B., Qian, Z., & Carmalt, J. M. (2007a). Marital assimilation among Hispanics? Evidence of declining cultural and economic incorporation? Social Science Quarterly, 88, 745–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lichter, D. T., Carmalt, J. H., & Qian, Z. (2011). Immigration and intermarriage among Hispanics: Crossing racial and generational boundaries. Sociological Forum, 26, 241–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lichter, D. T., & Johnson, K. M. (2007). The changing spatial concentration of America’s rural poor population. Rural Sociology, 72, 331–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lichter, D. T., & Johnson, K. M. (2009). Immigrant gateways and Hispanic migration to new destinations. International Migration Review, 43, 496–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lichter, D. T., Parisi, D., Grice, S. M., & Taquino, M. C. (2007b). National estimates of racial segregation in rural and small-town America. Demography, 44, 563–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lichter, D. T., Parisi, D., & Taquino, M. C. (2012). The geography of exclusion: Race, segregation, and concentrated poverty. Social Problems, 59, 364–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lichter, D. T., Parisi, D., Taquino, M. C., & Grice, S. M. (2010). Residential segregation in new Hispanic destinations: Cities, suburbs, and rural communities compared. Social Science Research, 39, 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lichter, D. T., Qian, Z., & Crowley, M. L. (2006). Child poverty among racial minorities and immigrants: Explaining trends and differentials. Social Science Quarterly, 86, 1037–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Logan, J. R. (2011). Whose schools are failing? New York: Russell Sage Foundation and Brown University.Google Scholar
  126. Logan, J. R., & Stults, B. J. (2011). The persistence of segregation in the metropolis: New findings from the 2010 census. New York: Russell Sage Foundation and Brown University.Google Scholar
  127. Logan, J. R., & Zhang, W. (2011). Global neighborhoods: New evidence from Census 2010. New York: Russell Sage Foundation and Brown University.Google Scholar
  128. Ludwig, J., Liebman, J. B., Kling, J. R., Duncan, G. J., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., & Sanbonmatsu, L. (2008). What can we learn about neighborhood effects from the moving to opportunity experiment? The American Journal of Sociology, 114, 144–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Magnuson, K. A., & Waldfogel, J. (2005). Early childhood care and education: Effects on ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness. The Future of Children, 15, 169–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Martin, P., & Midgley, E. (2010). Immigration in America: Update 2010. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau.Google Scholar
  131. Martin, J. A., Brady, E. H., Ventura, S. J., Osterman, M. J. K., Kirmeyer, S., Mathews, T. J., et al. (2011). Births: Final data for 2009 (National Vital Statistics Reports 60(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  132. Martin, J. A., Brady, E. H., Ventura, S. J., Osterman, M. J. K., Wilson, E. E., & Matthews, T. J. (2012). Births: Final data for 2010 (National Vital Statistics Reports 61(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  133. Massey, D. S. (1996). The age of extremes: Concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century. Demography, 33, 395–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Massey, D. S. (2008). New faces in new places: The changing geography of American immigration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  135. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Massey, D. S., & Fischer, M. J. (2003). The geography of inequality in the United States, 1950–2000. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 2003, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Massey, D. S., Rothwell, J., & Domina, T. (2009). The changing bases of segregation in the United States. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 626, 74–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Massey, D. S., & Sánchez, R. M. (2010). Brokered boundaries: Creating immigrant identity in anti-immigrant times. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  139. McCall, L., & Percheski, C. (2010). Income inequality: New trends and research directions. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 329–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. McClintock, E. A. (2010). When does race matter? Race, sex, and dating at an elite university. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 45–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. McLanahan, S. (2004). Diverging destinies: How children are faring under the second demographic transition. Demography, 41, 607–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. McLanahan, S., & Percheski, C. (2008). Family structure and the reproduction of inequalities. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 257–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 415–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Menjívar, C., & Abrego, L. J. (2012). Legal violence: Immigration law and the lives of Central American immigrants. The American Journal of Sociology, 117, 1380–1421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Moody, J. (2001). Race, school integration, and friendship segregation in America. The American Journal of Sociology, 107, 679–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Morgan, S. P. (2003). Is low fertility a 21st century demographic crisis? Demography, 40, 589–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Mouw, T., & Entwisle, B. (2006). Residential segregation and interracial friendship in schools. The American Journal of Sociology, 112, 394–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Murdock, S. H., White, S., Hoque, M. N., Pecotte, B., & You, X. (2003). The new Texas challenge: Population change and the future of Texas. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
  149. Murray, C. (2012). Coming apart: The state of white America, 1960–2010. New York: Crown Forum.Google Scholar
  150. Myers, D. (2007a). California and the third great demographic transition: Immigrant incorporation, ethnic change, and population aging, 1970–2030. In P. Davies & I. Morgan (Eds.), America’s Americans: Population issues in U.S. society and politics (pp. 346–382). London, UK: University of London, Institute for the Study of the America’s.Google Scholar
  151. Myers, D. (2007b). Immigrants and boomers: Forging a new social contract for the future of America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  152. Myrdal, G. (1944). An American dilemma. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  153. National Center for Education Statistics. (2013, January 21). Digest of education statistics: Table 264. Full-time instructional faculty in degree-granting institutions, by race/ethnicity, sex, and academic rank: Fall 2007, fall 2009, and fall 2011. Retrieved from
  154. Newman, K. S., & O’Brien, R. L. (2011). Taxing the poor: Doing damage to the truly disadvantaged. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  155. Parisi, D., Lichter, D. T., & Taquino, M. (2011). Multi-scale residential segregation: Black exceptionalism and America’s changing color line. Social Forces, 89, 829–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Park, R. E. (1915). The city: Suggestions for the investigation of human behavior in the city environment. The American Journal of Sociology, 20, 577–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. V. (2010). U.S. unauthorized immigration flows are down sharply since mid-decade. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
  158. Passel, J., Cohn, D. V., & Gonzalez-Barrera, A. (2012). Net migration from Mexico falls to zero—and perhaps less. Washington DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
  159. Perez, A. D., & Hirschman, C. (2009). The changing racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. population: Emerging American identities. Population and Development Review, 35, 1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Perlman, J. (2005). Italians then, Mexicans now. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  161. Pettit, B. (2012). Invisible men: Mass incarceration and the myth of black progress. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  162. Pettit, B., & Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69, 151–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Portes, A., & Vickstrom, E. (2011). Diversity, social capital, and cohesion. Annual Review of Sociology, 37, 461–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530, 74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Poterba, J. (1997). Demographic structure and the political economy of public education. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 16, 48–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Preston, S. H. (1984). Children and the elderly: Divergent paths for America’s dependents. Demography, 21, 435–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Putnam, R. D. (2007). E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century. Scandinavian Political Studies, 30, 137–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Qian, Z., Glick, J. E., & Batson, C. D. (2012). Crossing boundaries: Nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection. Demography, 49, 651–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Qian, Z., & Lichter, D. T. (2007). Social boundaries and marital assimilation: Interpreting trends in racial and ethnic intermarriage. American Sociological Review, 72, 68–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Qian, Z., & Lichter, D. T. (2011). Changing patterns of interracial marriage in a multiracial society. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 1065–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Quillian, L., & Campbell, M. E. (2003). Beyond black and white: The present and future of multiracial friendship segregation. American Sociological Review, 68, 540–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Raabe, T., & Beelmann, A. (2011). Development of ethnic, racial, and national prejudice in childhood and adolescence: A multinational meta-analysis of age differences. Child Development, 82, 1715–1737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Reardon, S. F., & Bischoff, K. (2011). Growth in the residential segregation of families by income, 1970–2009. New York: Russell Sage Foundation and Brown University.Google Scholar
  174. Reardon, S. F., Grewal, E. T., Kalogrides, D., & Greenberg, E. (2012). Brown fades: The end of court-ordered school desegregation and the resegregation of American public schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 31, 876–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rebhun, U., & Malach, G. (2012). Demography, social prosperity, and the future of sovereign Israel. Israel Affairs, 18, 177–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Roscigno, V. J., Karafin, D. L., & Tester, G. (2009). The complexities and processes of racial housing discrimination. Social Problems, 56, 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Rosenfeld, M. J. (2008). Racial, educational, and religious endogamy in the United States: A comparative historical perspective. Social Forces, 87, 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Rosenfeld, M. J., & Thomas, R. J. (2012). Searching for a mate: The rise of the Internet as a social intermediary. American Sociological Review, 77, 523–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Ross, S. L., & Turner, M. A. (2005). Housing discrimination in metropolitan America: Explaining changes between 1989 and 2000. Social Problems, 52, 152–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Rude, J., & Herda, D. (2010). Best friends forever? Race and the stability of adolescent friendships. Social Forces, 89, 585–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing “neighborhood effects”: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Sanders, J. (2002). Ethnic boundaries and identity in plural societies. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 327–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sanders, S., & Lichter, D. T. (2012, May). Born poor: Inequality among ethnoracial minorities and immigrants. Presented at the annual meetings of the Population Association of America, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  184. Sassler, S., Cunningham, A., & Lichter, D. T. (2009). Intergenerational patterns of union formation and relationship quality. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 757–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Sassler, S., & Joyner, K. (2011). Social exchange and the progression of sexual relationships in emerging adulthood. Social Forces, 90, 223–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sawhill, I. (2012, January 8). Opportunity in America: The disadvantages start at conception. New York Times, Room for Debate. Retrieved from
  187. Sharkey, P. (2012). Temporary integration, resilient inequality: Race and neighborhood change in the transition to adulthood. Demography, 49, 889–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Smeeding, T. M., Erikson, R., & Jäntti, M. (2012). Persistence, privilege, and parenting: The comparative study of intergenerational mobility. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  189. Smith, T. W. (1999). Trendlets: Inter-racial friendships [and] the emerging 21st century American family. GSS News, 13, 3–4.Google Scholar
  190. Spencer, R. (2011). Reproducing race: The paradox of generation mix. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  191. Stainback, K., & Irvin, M. (2012). Workplace racial composition, perceived discrimination, and organizational attachment. Social Science Research, 41, 657–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Stevens, G., Ishizawa, H., & Escandell, X. (2012). Marrying into the American population: Pathways into cross-nativity marriages. International Migration Review, 46, 740–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Taylor, M. C., & Mateyka, P. J. (2011). Community influences on white racial attitudes: What matters and why? The Sociological Quarterly, 52, 220–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Taylor, P., Passel, J. S., Wang, W., Kiley, J., Velasco, G., & Dockterman, D. (2010). Marrying out: One-in-seven new U.S. marriages is interracial or interethnic. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  195. Telles, E. E. (2004). Race in another America: The significance of skin color in Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  196. Telles, E. E., & Ortiz, V. (2008). Generations of exclusion: Mexican-Americans, assimilation and race. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  197. Telles, E. E., & Sue, C. A. (2009). Race mixture: Boundary crossing in comparative perspective. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Thomas, K. J. A. (2011). Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families. Demography, 48, 437–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Tienda, M. (2002). Demography and the social contract. Demography, 39, 587–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Tilly, C. (2004). Social boundary mechanisms. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 34, 211–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012a). 2012 national population projections. Retrieved from
  202. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012b). Methodology and assumptions for the 2012 national projections. Retrieved from
  203. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012c). Table 3. Poverty status, by age, race and Hispanic origin. Retrieved from Accessed December 16, 2012.
  204. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012d). Components of population change—States. Retrieved from
  205. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012e). Most children younger than age 1 are minorities, Census Bureau reports (Press release). Retrieved from
  206. Van Hook, J., Brown, S. L., & Kwenda, N. M. (2004). A decomposition of trends in poverty among immigrant children. Demography, 41, 649–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Waldfogel, J. (2010). Britain’s war on poverty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  208. Waller, M. R., & Swisher, R. (2006). Fathers’ risk factors in fragile families: Implications for “healthy” relationships and father involvement. Social Problems, 53, 392–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Waters, M. C. (1990). Ethnic options: Choosing identities in America. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  210. Western, B., Bloome, D., Sosnaud, B., & Tach, L. (2012). Economic insecurity and social stratification. Annual Review of Sociology, 38, 341–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. White, M. J., & Glick, J. E. (2009). Achieving anew: How new immigrants do in American schools, jobs, and neighborhoods. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  212. Wildeman, C. (2010). Paternal incarceration and children’s physically aggressive behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study. Social Forces, 89, 285–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Wimmer, A. (2008). Elementary strategies of ethnic boundary making. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31, 1025–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Wimmer, A., & Lewis, K. (2010). Beyond and below racial homophily: ERG models of a friendship network documented on Facebook. The American Journal of Sociology, 116, 583–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Wood, R. G., McConnell, S., Moore, Q., Clarkwest, A., & Hsueh, J. (2012). The effects of building strong families: A healthy marriage and relationship skills education program for unmarried parents. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 31, 228–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Yancey, G. (2009). Cross-racial differences in the racial preferences of potential dating partners: A test of the alienation of African Americans and social domination orientation. The Sociological Quarterly, 50, 121–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Zhang, H. (2011). School desegregation and white flight revised: A spatial analysis from a metropolitan perspective. Urban Geography, 32, 1208–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Zhang, Y., & Van Hook, J. (2009). Marital dissolution among interracial couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, 95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Zuberi, T., & Bonilla-Silva, E. (2008). White logic, white methods: Racism and methodology. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Policy Analysis and Management and Sociology, Cornell Population CenterCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations