, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 963–969

Reply to Allen et al.


DOI: 10.1007/s13524-012-0170-4

Cite this article as:
Rosenfeld, M.J. Demography (2013) 50: 963. doi:10.1007/s13524-012-0170-4


Allen et al.’s results depend on their inclusion of children whose family at the time of their grade retention is unknown, plus adopted and foster children whose selection process into families is unknown. Children whose family has been through upheavals or transitions are less likely to make good progress in school than children from stable families. Children raised by stable same-sex couples do remarkably well in school.


Family structure Children Grade retention Same-sex couples 

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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