, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 219–237

The Value of an Employment-Based Green Card


DOI: 10.1007/s13524-011-0079-3

Cite this article as:
Mukhopadhyay, S. & Oxborrow, D. Demography (2012) 49: 219. doi:10.1007/s13524-011-0079-3


The need for and role of highly skilled immigrant workers in the U.S. economy is fiercely debated. Proponents and opponents agree that temporary foreign workers are paid a lower wage than are natives. This lower wage partly originates from the restricted mobility of workers while on a temporary visa. In this article, we estimate the wage gain to employment-based immigrants from acquiring permanent U.S. residency. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (2003) and implement a difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimator. We find that for employer-sponsored immigrants, the acquisition of a green card leads to an annual wage gain of about $11,860.


Immigration Permanent residency High skill Mobility 

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of Nevada RenoRenoUSA

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