WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 439–454 | Cite as

Shared pilot passage plan and navigational safety during pilotage

  • Jahn Viggo Rønningen
  • Kjell Ivar Øvergård


Navigating in confined waters with a pilot aboard requires that the pilot’s intention and plan is understood by all present on the bridge. The present study investigates the effect of having a detailed route plan and monitoring it in the context of pilotage. The aim was to see how the presence of a shared pilot passage plan in the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) affects the identification and recovery from navigational errors made by a pilot. Twenty participants, 10 with a shared route plan and 10 without, participated as navigators in a simulator scenario involving pilotage in the Oslofjord. Participants were bachelor students in nautical science. The navigation scenarios involved the intentional error by the pilot just before a predefined way point. Three measurements of relevance to navigational safety were recorded: (1) the time it took the participant to express concern, (2) the time it took the participant to correct the error (‘time to recovery’), and (3) the number of groundings. The study revealed that time to express concern and time to recovery were significantly much shorter for the group with a shared pilot passage plan presented in ECDIS than for the group without such a plan. Providing a bridge team with a shared pilot passage plan in ECDIS during pilotage might improve the ability to identify and correct navigational errors.


Pilotage Safety Pilot passage plan Human error Error recovery 



The authors would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. We are also grateful to Thomas Førlie at the University College of Southeast Norway for providing valuable assistance during the data collection.


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Copyright information

© World Maritime University 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jahn Viggo Rønningen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kjell Ivar Øvergård
    • 2
  1. 1.Norwegian Shipowners’ AssociationOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Maritime OperationsUniversity College of Southeast NorwayBorreNorway

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