Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 297–305 | Cite as

The globalization of ecologically intensive aquaculture (1984–2008)

Article

Abstract

Social structures influence the spread of aquaculture and the particular ecological demands of this industry, which mediate the prospects of fisheries conservation. We assessed the effects of trade in food and fisheries commodities, the level of economic development, aquaculture production, and human population on the expansion of ecologically intensive aquaculture within the global food system. In doing this, we created a conservative measure of ecologically intensive aquaculture. We then conducted cross-national panel regression analyses (1984–2008) of 90 nations to investigate the expansion of ecologically intensive aquaculture and its integration into the global food system. The results indicated positive significant relationships between ecologically intensive aquaculture practices and fisheries commodity exports, total trade in food commodities, GDP per capita, and population size. These findings suggest that the dynamics of the modern global food system, characterized by increasingly globalized production of natural resource intensive processes, have significantly shaped the development of modern aquaculture systems and their ecological consequences.

Keywords

Fisheries Food systems Marine systems Social structures Trade 

References

  1. Aguado-Gimenez F, Garcia-Garcia B (2005) Growth, food intake and feed conversion rates in captive Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus Thynnus, Linnaeus, 1758) under fattening conditions. Aquacult Res 36:610–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clausen R, Clark B (2005) The metabolic rift and marine ecology: an analysis of the ocean crisis within capitalist production. Org Environ 18(4):422–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clausen R, York R (2008) Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels. Conserv Biol 22(2):458–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Czech B (2008) Prospects for reconciling the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation with technological progress. Conserv Biol 22(6):1389–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deutsch L, Graslund S, Folke C, Troell M, Huitric M, Kautsky N, Lebel L (2007) Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization: exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal. Glob Environ Chang 17:238–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dietz T, Rosa EA (1994) Rethinking the environmental impacts of population, affluence and technology. Hum Ecol Rev 1(1):277–300Google Scholar
  7. Dinda S (2004) Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: a survey. Ecol Econ 49:431–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Folke C, Kautsky N (1992) Aquaculture with its environment: prospects for sustainability. Ocean Coast Manag 17(1):5–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Forester DJ, Machlis GE (1996) Modeling human factors that affect the loss of biodiversity. Conserv Biol 10:1253–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Frazer LN (2008) Sea-cage aquaculture, sea lice, and declines of wild fish. Conserv Biol 23(3):599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grossman G, Krueger A (1995) Economic growth and the environment. Q J Econ 110(2):353–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D’Agrosa C, Bruno JF, Casey KS, Ebert C, Fox HE, Fujita R, Heinemann D, Lenihan HS, Elizabeth MP, Madin MT, Perry ER, Selig M, Spalding R, Steneck RW (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319(5685):948–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ICCAT (2007) Report of the Standing Committee on Research and Statistics (SCRS). International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  14. Jorgenson AK (2009) The sociology of unequal exchange in ecological context: a panel study of lower-income countries. Sociol Forum 24(1):22–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lawn P (2008) Macroeconomic policy, growth, and biodiversity conservation. Conserv Biol 22(6):1418–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Longo S, York R (2008) Agricultural exports and the environment: a cross-national study of fertilizer and pesticide consumption. Rural Sociol 73(1):82–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Naylor R, Burke M (2005) Aquaculture and ocean resources: raising tigers of the sea. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:185–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Mooney H, Beveridge M, Clay J, Folke C, Kautsky N, Lubchenco J, Primavera J, Williams M (1998) Nature’s subsidies to shrimp and salmon farming. Science 282(5390):883–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M (2000) Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Naylor RL, Hardy RW, Bureau DP, Chiu A, Elliott M, Farrell AP, Forster I, Gatlin DM, Goldburg RJ, Hua K (2009) Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(36):15103–15110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2010) Globalisation in fisheries and aquaculture: opportunities and challenges. OECD Publishing, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  22. Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. Nature 374:255–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres F (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279(5352):860–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pauly D, Christensen V, Guénette S, Pitcher TJ, Sumaila UR, Walters CJ, Watson R, Zeller D (2002) Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418:689–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pillay TVR, Kutty MN (2005) Aquaculture: principles and practices. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
  26. Pimentel D, Shanks RE, Rylander JC (1996) Bioethics of fish production: energy and the environment. J Agric Environ Ethics 9(2):144–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Qureshi AH (1996) The World Trade Organization: implementing international trade norms. Manchester University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Runge CF, Ortalo-Magné F, Vande Kamp P (1994) Freer trade, protected environment: balancing trade liberalization and environmental interests. Council on Foreign Relations Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  29. Stergiou KI, Tsikliras AC, Pauly D (2009) Farming up Mediterranean food webs. Conserv Biol 23(1):230–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tacon AGJ, Metian M (2008) Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture 285:146–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tacon AGJ, Metian M (2009a) Fishing for aquaculture: non-food use of small pelagic forage fish: a global perspective. Rev Fish Sci 17:305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tacon AGJ, Metian M (2009b) Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish. Ambio 38(6):294–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Troell M, Tyedmers P, Kautsky N, Rönnbäck P (2004) Aquaculture and energy use. Encycl Energy 1:97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tyedmers PH, Watson R, Pauly D (2005) Fueling global fishing fleets. Ambio 34(8):635–638Google Scholar
  35. UNFAO (2011a) FishStatJ: universal software for fishery statistical time series. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  36. UNFAO (2011b) State of world fisheries and aquaculture, 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  37. UNFAO (2011c) World aquaculture 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  38. United Nations (2010) Agenda 21. United Nations Division for Sustainable Development, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  39. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melilo JM (1997) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277(5325):494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weber ML (2003) What price farmed fish? A review of the environmental and social costs of farming carnivorous fish. SeaWeb Aquaculture Clearinghouse, Providence, RIGoogle Scholar
  41. World Bank (2007) Changing the face of the waters: the promise and challenge of sustainable aquaculture. World Bank Group, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. World Bank (2011a) The global program on fisheries: strategic vision for fisheries and aquaculture. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. World Bank (2011b) World development indicators. World Bank, Washington, DC, http://databank.worldbank.org/ddp/home.do?Step=12&id=4&CNO=2. Accessed 26 January 2012Google Scholar
  44. WTO (2011) Harnessing trade for sustainable development and a green economy. World Trade Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  45. York R, Rosa EA, Dietz T (2003) STIRPAT, IPAT, and ImPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts. Ecol Econ 46(3):351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AESS 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of SociologyUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations