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Frequency and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes presenting at a tertiary care hospital

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International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate frequency and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methodology

This prospective observational study was conducted from January 2017 to June 2017 at the outpatient department of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE) and Baqai Medical University a tertiary care diabetes hospital of Karachi, Pakistan. Convenience sampling was done. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data were collected, and ophthalmic screening was performed by funduscopy at a slit lamp biomicroscopy with the help 90 D fundus lens. Grading of diabetic retinopathy was done according to the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale (ETDRS) criteria.

Result

Retinopathy was present in 17.5% of patients. Non-sight-threatening retinopathy was found in 15.2% and sight-threatening retinopathy was found in 17.6%. In table 4, logistic regression analysis determined the relationship between retinopathy and its possible risk factors. In univariate logistic regression model, Age, poor glycemic control and longer duration of diabetes were found to be significant risk factors for developing retinopathy. In multivariate logistic regression model, duration of diabetes remained significantly associated with the development of retinopathy. Additionally, gender was not significantly associated in univariate analysis but it became significant after adjustment in multivariate model.

Conclusion

An early screening program reduces the risk of incidence of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, screening of retinopathy should be done once in a year.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

SS: Concept and design, researched data, wrote and reviewed the manuscript

AF: Concept and design, edited and reviewed the manuscript

ARK: Researched data, edited and reviewed the manuscript

AB: Wrote and reviewed the manuscript

NAS: Edited and reviewed the manuscript

AB: Concept and design, edited and reviewed the manuscript

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Asher Fawwad.

Ethics declarations

Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the institutional review board (IRB) of BIDE.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Sultan, S., Fawwad, A., Siyal, N.A. et al. Frequency and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes presenting at a tertiary care hospital. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 40, 87–92 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13410-019-00756-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13410-019-00756-9

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