Screening for diabetic retinopathy by non-mydriatic fundus camera in a Turkish population

  • Muhammed Nurullah Bulut
  • Eren Göktaş
  • Ümit Çallı
  • Kezban Bulut
  • Güzide Akçay
  • Gülgün Arslan
  • Mehmet Sargın
  • Aysu Karatay Arsan
  • Yusuf Özertürk
Original Article


To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a diabetic population in Turkey using a non-mydriatic fundus camera. Patients presenting to our diabetes screening center were evaluated by fundus photography using a non-mydriatic fundus camera. Patients’ age at presentation, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and treatments used for diabetes were recorded. The data of 1797 female (55%) and 1470 male (45%) diabetes patients (total 3267) were analyzed. The prevalence of DR was 28.6%. DR stage was mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR) in 345 patients (12.9%), moderate NPDR in 300 (11.2%), severe NPDR in 108 (4%), and proliferative DR (PDR) in 12 patients (0.4%). Diabetic macular edema (DME) was detected 98 patients (3.7%). Fundus pictures were inadequate for assessment in 18% of cases (588 patient). Advanced age, longer diabetes duration, higher HbA1c level, and being treated for diabetes were found as risk factors for DR. In this study, we used a non-mydriatic fundus camera to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in a Turkish population. In developing countries, the non-mydriatic fundus camera may be an appropriate way to detect DR in the early stages before it progresses to the proliferative stage.


Diabetes Prevalence Turkey Retinopathy Risk factor Screening 



We are thankful to the staff of the Pendik Kaynarca Diabetes Center for their efforts.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammed Nurullah Bulut
    • 1
  • Eren Göktaş
    • 1
  • Ümit Çallı
    • 2
  • Kezban Bulut
    • 1
  • Güzide Akçay
    • 1
  • Gülgün Arslan
    • 3
  • Mehmet Sargın
    • 3
  • Aysu Karatay Arsan
    • 1
  • Yusuf Özertürk
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Health Sciences Kartal Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Training and Research Hospital Eye ClinicİstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.University of Health Sciences Ümraniye Training and Research Hospital Eye ClinicİstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.University of Health Sciences Kartal Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Training and Research Hospital Endocrine ClinicİstanbulTurkey

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