Low vitamin D and risk for small for gestation age babies in gestational diabetes

Abstract

This study aims to find the possible correlation of vitamin D with the onset of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its effect on fetal growth. A case-control study was conducted recruiting pregnant women in their second trimester. All subjects were classified as per the guidelines of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criterion. Fetal growth scans were recorded at 28th week of gestation. Venous blood was collected and serum levels of 25-(OH) D, Calcium, TNF alpha were measured. Vitamin D concentration in cases was lower (2.40 ± 1.10 ng/ml) as compared to controls (5.50 ± 1.74 ng/ml), while serum calcium levels of both groups were under normal range. TNF alpha level in cases was higher as compared to controls (p < 0.001). On ultrasound scan, 47% of the babies of GDM mothers were small for gestational age. No difference was observed in terms of femur length and fetal weight in both groups (p > 0.05). Weak negative correlation of vitamin D with insulin resistance (r = −0.304; p = 0.004), positive correlation with fetal growth (r = 0.303; p = 0.043) and a strong negative correlation with TNF alpha levels (r = −0.703; p = 0.023) were observed. Low vitamin D levels may be associated with the onset of gestational diabetes and affect fetal growth and development. Hence, antenatal screening and timely intervention is recommended.

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Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University, for funding this project. Also we wish to thank the study volunteers and technical staff of the project.

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SSF and FA were involved in the conception and design, analysis, and interpretation of data. MAS and AS were involved in the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data. All authors took active part in drafting the article and revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final version submitted for publication.

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Correspondence to Faiza Alam.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences’ research module fund.

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Fatima, S.S., Maqbool, M.A., Syed, A. et al. Low vitamin D and risk for small for gestation age babies in gestational diabetes. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 38, 36–41 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13410-017-0557-2

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Keywords

  • GDM
  • Vitamin D
  • Small for gestational age