Skip to main content

Estimation of glycemic carbohydrate and glycemic index/load of commonly consumed cereals, legumes and mixture of cereals and legumes


Aim of the present study is to estimate glycemic carbohydrates and develop data base on glycemic index and glycemic load (GI and GL) of commonly consumed cereals and legumes by using Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) or World Health Organization (WHO) methods. The results of glycemic carbohydrates in rice was 79.22 %, wheat 63.26 % and pulses in the range from 51.24 % (green gram) to 56.22 %, (chana dhal), mixed dhal 40.09 %, wheat + chana dhal (60:40) 49.94 %, wheat + chana dhal + barley (40:30:30) was 46.89 %, respectively. The results of GI and GL of rice were the highest (GI–78.23, GL–49.38), followed by wheat chapatti (GI–65.66, GL–32.83). The pulses tested were showing lower values ranging from (GI–37.95 to 43.01 and GL–18.97 to 21.50), mixed dhal (GI–43.64, GL–21.82), wheat + chana dhal (60: 40) (GI–32.37, GL–16.18), wheat + chana dhal + barley (40:30:30) GI–39.27, GL–19.63, respectively. The results of the study indicated that pulses have low glycemic indices and glycemic loads, hence, could be safely used in the diet of diabetic patients.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. FAO Food Nutr Pap. 1998;66:1–140.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Gross LS, Li L, Ford ES, Liu S. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:774–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. EFSA J. 2010;8:1462.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Nantel G. Carbohydrates in human nutrition, Carbohydrates/FAO Document Repository. 2007;1–8.

  5. 5.

    Southgate T. Determination of food carbohydrates. 2nd ed. London: Applied Science, UK: Elseviers; 1991.

  6. 6.

    Wolever TMS. Is glycaemic index (GI) a valid measure of carbohydrate quality? Eur J Clin Nut. 2013;67:522–31.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Amanda R, Kirpitch, Melinda D. The 3 R’s of glycemic index: recommendations, research, and the real world. Clin Dia. 2011;29:155–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Simpson HCR, Lousley S, Geekie M, Simpson RW, Carter RD, Hockaday TDR, Mann JI. A high carbohydrate (leguminous fibre) diet improves all aspects of diabetic control. Lancet. 1981;317:1–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Jenkins JAD, Axelsen M, Cyril WC, Kendall, Livia SA. Dietary fiber, lente carbohydrates and the insulin resistant diseases. Bri J Nut. 2000;83:S157–63.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, Gibbs AL, Lang V, Slama G, et al. Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev. 2005;18:145–71.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Southgate T. Determination of food carbohydrates. 2nd ed. London: Applied Science, UK: Elseviers; 2000.

  12. 12.

    Vitaladasa MK, Belavady B. Unavailable carbohydrates of commonly consumed Indian foods. J Sci food Agri. 1980;31:194–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Jaisingh K, Babu LS, Ramesh S. A modified anthrone-sulfuric acid method for the determination of fructose in the presence of certain protein. Anal Bioch. 1987;167:327–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Casterline JR, James L, Carolyne J, Oles, Yuoh KU. Measurement of sugars and starches in foods by a modification of the AOAC total dietary fiber method. J AOAC Int. 1999;83:759–65.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Costa HS, Vasilopoulou E, Trichopoulou AP, Finglas. New nutritional data on traditional foods for European food composition databases. Eur J Clin Nut. 2010;64:S73–81.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Barreira JCM, Pereira JA, Beatriz MBPP, Oliveira ICFR. Sugars profile of different chestnut (Castanea sativa mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI. Plant Foods Hum Nut. 2010;65:38–43.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Miguelez JM, Bernardez M, Queijeiro JG. HPLC determination of sugars in varieties of chestnut fruits from Galicia (Spain). J Food Comp Anal. 2004;17:63–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Ellingson D, Potts B, Anderson P, Borkhardy G, Ellefson W, Sullivan D. Method for the direct determination of available carbohydrates in low-carbohydrate products using high-performance anion exchange chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:1897–904.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Devindra S. Estimation of glycemic carbohydrates from commonly consumed foods using modified anthrone method. Indian J Appl Res. 2015;5:45–7.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Oboh H, Osagie A, Omotosho A. Glycemic response of some boiled legumes commonly eaten in Nigeria. Diab Croatica. 2010;39:125–31.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Radhika G, Sumathi C, Ganesan A, Sudha V, Jeya Kumar H, Mohan CV. Glycaemic index of Indian flat breads (rotis) prepared using whole wheat flour and ‘atta mix’ added whole wheat flour. Bri J Nutr. 2010;103:1642–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    http//,Health A-Z, Nutrition, Special Diets, October 23, 2013.

  23. 23.

    Mani UV, Mani IU, Iyer UM, Prakash B, Manivannan T, Campbell S, Chandalia S. Glycemic and lipemic response to various regional meals and south Indian snacks. Int J Diab Dev Countries. 1997;17:75–81.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Srinivasa D, Raman A, Meena P, Geetanjali C, Ankita M, Kiran J. Glycaemic index (GI) of an Indian branded thermally treated basmati Rice variety. J Ass Phy. 2013;61:716–20.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Pirasath S, Thayananthan K, Balakumar S, Arasaratnam V. Effect of soluble fiber on glycemic index. Galle Med J. 2012;17:23–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Imran K, Farukh T, Alam K. Glycemic indices and glycemic loads of various types of pulses. Pakistan J Nut. 2008;7:104–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Khan ML, Khan N, Bhatty S. Blood glucose responses to conventional leguminous dishes in normal and diabetics. The J Animal Plant Sci. 2009;19:63–6.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Aslani Z, Alipour B, Bahadoran Z, Bagherzadeh F, Mirmiran P. Effect of lentil sprouts on glycemic control in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Nut Food Sci. 2015;4:10–4.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The author thanks to T. Longvah, Director, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, for his interest and encouragement.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Devindra.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Devindra, S., Chouhan, S., Katare, C. et al. Estimation of glycemic carbohydrate and glycemic index/load of commonly consumed cereals, legumes and mixture of cereals and legumes. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 37, 426–431 (2017).

Download citation


  • α-amylase
  • Anthrone
  • Amyloglucosidase
  • Protease
  • Starch
  • Glycemic index
  • Glycemic load