Prevalence and risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus among Kabul citizens—Afghanistan, 2012

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease that can lead to severe complications and even death in affected individuals, is on the rise worldwide. In 2011, an estimated 185 million people were living with diabetes, with a projected prevalence of 276 million by 2030. In Afghanistan, reliable published information about diabetes mellitus is unavailable. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted during December 2011–March 2012 to estimate the prevalence and determine factors for diabetes mellitus among adults living in urban Kabul. A multistage random sampling technique was used to recruit adults of ≥40 years. Background data, blood pressure, body mass index, and blood sugar were obtained via a structured questionnaire, physical examinations, and blood specimen. Individuals previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus or those having a fasting blood sugar >126 mg% were considered as diabetes mellitus. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Out of total 1183 participants, 157 (13.2 %, confidence interval (CI 12.2–14.2) were identified as diabetes mellitus. Factors independently associated with diabetes mellitus were age with cutoff 45 years (OR=1.59, CI 1.04 - 2.44), educaiton level (OR=1.90, CI 1.21 - 3.01) family history of diabetes (odds ratios (OR) = 8.5, CI 5–14), sedentary lifestyle (OR = 3.6, CI 1.8–7.3), eating rice (OR = 2.0, CI 1.3–3.1), using a car for transportation (OR = 2.3, CI 1.2–4.8), hypertension (OR = 1.8, CI 1.2–2.8), and using liquid cooking oil (OR = 0.4, CI 0.3–0.6). Measures such as raising awareness and lifestyle modifications may help to reduce the burden of the disease among adults in Kabul.

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Correspondence to Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed.

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Saeed, K.M.I., Asghar, R.J., Sahak, M.N. et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus among Kabul citizens—Afghanistan, 2012. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 35, 297–303 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13410-014-0270-3

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Keywords

  • Cross-sectional study
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Prevalence
  • Risk factors
  • Kabul, Afghanistan