Anti-proliferative, apoptotic and signal transduction effects of hesperidin in non-small cell lung cancer cells
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Hesperidin, a glycoside flavonoid, is thought to act as an anti-cancer agent, since it has been found to exhibit both pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in several cancer cell types. The mechanisms underlying hesperidin-induced growth arrest and apoptosis are, however, not well understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of hesperidin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and to investigate the mechanisms involved.
The anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of hesperidin on two NSCLC-derived cell lines, A549 and NCI-H358, were determined using a WST-1 colorimetric assay, a LDH cytotoxicity assay, a Cell Death Detection assay, an AnnexinV-FITC assay, a caspase-3 assay and a JC-1 assay, respectively, all in a time- and dose-dependent manner. As a control, non-cancerous MRC-5 lung fibroblasts were included. Changes in whole genome gene expression profiles were assessed using an Illumina Human HT-12v4 beadchip microarray platform, and subsequent data analyses were performed using an Illumina Genome Studio and Ingenuity Pathway Analyser (IPA).
We found that after hesperidin treatment, A549 and NCI-H358 cells exhibited decreasing cell proliferation and increasing caspase-3 and other apoptosis-related activities, in conjunction with decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential activities, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Through a GO analysis, by which changes in gene expression profiles were compared, we found that the FGF and NF-κB signal transduction pathways were most significantly affected in the hesperidin treated NCI-H358 and A549 NSCLC cells.
Our results indicate that hesperidin elicits an in vitro growth inhibitory effect on NSCLC cells by modulating immune response-related pathways that affect apoptosis. When confirmed in vivo, hesperidin may serve as a novel anti-proliferative agent for non-small cell lung cancer.
KeywordsNon-small cell lung cancer Hesperidin Anti-proliferative effect Apoptosis Gene expression profile
Nucleosomal enrichment factor
Fetal bovine serum
Fibroblast growth factor
Ingenuity pathway analysis
Eagle’s minimum essential medium
Nuclear factor kappa B
Non-small cell lung cancer
Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640
This work was funded by Istanbul University Scientific Research Project number 9205. We would like to thank Mr. David Chapman for editing the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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