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Antimicrobial properties of Acanthus ilicifolius and determination of phytochemical composition

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial activity, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Acanthus ilicifolius methanol extract. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of significant chemical components, including alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, and steroids. The absence of carbohydrates was also confirmed. GC-MS analysis identified 22 major compounds, with several possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. FTIR spectroscopy provided further insight into the functional groups present in the plant extract. Specific absorption bands at 3313.71, 2974.23, 2885.51, 1670.35, 1450.47, 1382.96, 1087.85, 1047.35, and 881.47cm−1 were observed. The FTIR spectrum showed the presence of O–H bonds, indicating that the proteins or phenolic compounds were present. The MIC values of ethanol, methanol, and chloroform extracts of A. ilicifolius against five bacterial strains ranged from 2 to 64 μg/mL, with chloroform extract showing significant antibacterial action. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against E. coli, followed by B. subtilis. The results suggest that A. ilicifolius has potential therapeutic applications due to its diverse phytochemical composition and antimicrobial properties. Further research is needed to isolate and characterize individual bioactive compounds and assess their potential for pharmaceutical development.

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SN and VRB: conceptualization, investigation, and data interpretation; SN, VRB, and CP: writing—original draft preparation and methodology; SA and TR: writing—review and editing.

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Correspondence to V. Rameshbabu.

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Natarajan, S., Rameshbabu, V., Ariharasudhan, S. et al. Antimicrobial properties of Acanthus ilicifolius and determination of phytochemical composition. Biomass Conv. Bioref. (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-023-04723-7

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