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Agroindustrial valorization of baru almond oil (Dipteryx alata) through sustainable techniques: a study on nutritional quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid, and tocopherol profile

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Abstract

The baru almond stands out as almond rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant potential. This study aimed to optimize the extraction of fixed oil from baru seed (Dipteryx alata), performed by the hydraulic press and Soxhlet using eco-friendly solvents (ethanol, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-METHF), and d-limonene), using preliminary treatment with ultrasound and microwaves, as well as carrying out the chemical and functional oil and evaluate its stability during 60 days of storage at 25 °C. Evaluating the combinations of extraction methods and solvents, ethanol was the solvent that presented the best results. The ultrasound method as a pretreatment in 30 min, followed by hydraulic pressing, was the one that presented the best results in oil yield and quality. Therefore, this method was adopted for the other stages of this study. Regarding the chemical composition of the oil, it was rich in unsaturated fatty acids, the main fatty acid being oleic acid at 45.90%, followed by linoleic acid at 25.96%. Regarding oxidative stability, the oil remained stable during 30 days of storage at 25 °C. During the days of storage, there were changes in the peroxide index (of 0.15 for 4.32 meq Kg−1), in the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (of 26.04 for 25.03%), and a reduction in the total tocopherols (of 10.94 for 7.43 mg 100 g−1) present in the oil. Finally, ultrasound has shown promise in extracting baru oil. Still, special methods are needed to protect the extracted oils from pro-oxidative factors.

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Funding

This work was partially funded by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel—Brazil (CAPES)—Financial Code 001. G.A.S. Martins received funding with the CAPES/Brazil no.: 88881.200497/2018–01, PROCAD-AM 1707/2018.

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Greice Folis Dagostin Santinoni: conceptualization, methodology, validation, formal analysis, original draft, investigation; Rômulo Alves Morais: methodology, validation, original draft, investigation, review and editing; Gabriela Fonsêca Leal: methodology, validation, formal analysis; Vinícius Soares dos Reis: methodology, validation, formal analysis; Glêndara Aparecida de Souza Martins: formal analysis, conceptualization, resources, supervision; Clarissa Damiani: conceptualization, resources, supervision, project administration, review and editing.

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Correspondence to Rômulo Alves Morais or Clarissa Damiani.

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Santinoni, G.F.D., Morais, R.A., Leal, G.F. et al. Agroindustrial valorization of baru almond oil (Dipteryx alata) through sustainable techniques: a study on nutritional quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid, and tocopherol profile. Biomass Conv. Bioref. (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-023-04578-y

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